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Cables-IEEE 1242 Specifying and Selecting Cable for Petrochemical Plants a Guide -By Donald A Voltz and Joseph H Snow, this is a really excellent technical paper from Mustang Engineering.
Protection or Degradation - Separate the ‘quiet’ cables such as analog I/O lines, digital I/O lines, or LAN connections - Motors starting, stopping, switches on and off, controls blinking in and out … it is a cacophony of electrical clatter. In today’s industrial environments, electronic devices, signal and power wiring, and other electrical plant/process equipment often interact to create “noise” or electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems, which can degrade critical measurement and control signals. Proper grounding and shielding techniques can help reduce or eliminate these problems and maintain signal integrity. From InTech.
How to Stop the Noise with Shielded Cable - The Importance of Being Properly Shielded - Electrical Interference or noise is the bane of all complex (and high speed) industrial electronics system and product designers. And why not? In Industrial controls systems, for example, it's estimated that well over 50 percent of all system hardware failures are caused in part by electrical noise. This is not just an issue for microprocessor based systems. With today's infinitely more complex communications and control systems that incorporate higher transmission and switching speeds, the implications of noise related failures are increasing exponentially. There is growing industry concern as well as increasingly more rigid regulations related to electrically radiated emissions, and EMC (electromagnetic compatibility). How to shield power and signal cables has never been a bigger issue. Based on the ever increasing distances that signal and control communications are required to travel, cables are the system components most highly exposed to interference. In fact, EMC and effective shielding have become just as critical as any other design concern, particularly in mission critical applications such as: medical, defense, industrial machinery, sensing and control, and communication - from Alpha Wire.
Heat-Shrink Tubing: The Versatile Tools for Maintenance and Repair - Think of heat-shrink tubing as the duct tape for electrical wiring on the factory floor. Heat-shrink tubing is versatile, easy to use, and finds wide applicability in maintenance and repair. Heat-shrink tubing can be used for preventive maintenance to avoid problems, and it is a wonderful tool for making minor repairs to cables and connectors - from Alpha Wire.
Specifying High-Performance Cables - The Devil Is In The Detail - Still, cables fail and systems go down. Why? Many of the problems that surround cable failure, especially in extreme and harsh operating environments could have been avoided by selecting the correct cable from the outset. "But specifying cable is easy," you say. Well, yes and no. Sure, it's easy to match temperature ranges and then count on a PVC jacket for protection. But there's a lot more to it than that. Understanding how the cable will work when exposed to extreme temperatures; quantifying the type of chemical, oil, fuel or solvent the cable will be exposed to; understanding the difference between flexible and flexing, considering the level of mechanical abuse, UV exposure and EMI/RFI interference concerns are just a few of the details that engineers need to consider before "fully" specifying an appropriate "hazard-matched" cable - from Alpha Wire.
Haloarrest® Low Smoke Zero Halogen Jacket Compound - Sarah Gladding - The Haloarrest jacket offers a unique solution to fit many applications. The Haloarrest jacket is a Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) alternative to traditional wire and cable jacket compounds. Cables with the Haloarrest LSZH jacket provide a useful alternative for industries that require restricted use of halogenated products. Materials that contain halogens emit potentially harmful and corrosive gases when they are burned. Haloarrest jacketed cables offer excellent flame resistance, low smoke properties, and reduced toxicity. From Beldon.
Low Smoke IEC compliant Non Halogen Cables Provide Maximum Safety and Assurance - Awareness of the impact of smoke and harmful gases emitted during a fire has led to a growing demand for an alternative to the more traditional plastic halogenated cable constructions. PVC has long been used as an appropriate cable insulation and jacketing material with a high degree of flame-retardancy. However, in the event of a fire this will generate dense black smoke, with toxic and corrosive gases that can cause fatality and destruction. This fatality and destruction is attributable to the significant amounts of halogens, namely chlorine, found in PVC based compounds. On combustion, lethal gas is released, which on contact with moisture produces copious amounts of hydrochloric acid. Particularly hazardous in areas of minimal ventilation and restricted escape, the dense black smoke impairs visibility and means of escape, equipment will be damaged by the corrosive gases whilst the effects of inhalation of toxic gases can be fatal. Flame retardancy is important but so is the choice of a cable that emits smoke in very low levels and more importantly – without harmful corrosive and toxic gases. Despite stricter legislation and a more responsible attitude, lives and equipment are still put at risk due to the use of halogenated cables or cables that scarcely meet recommended industry standards - from Beldon.
How Wire Fails - Stephen H. Lampen - Wire and cable can fail from a number of causes. This paper is an overview of the various failure modes wire can exhibit, how to predict each and how to help prevent it. Often, installers or users mistakenly suspect one failure mode when in fact another (or even none) is to blame. This article will also present an analysis template to determine just which failure mode might be expected.
Cable Alternatives for PWM AC Drive Applications - This paper describes an alternative solution for cables used with Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs). New IGBT technology has introduced voltage stresses on motors and cables that leads to unpredictable system performance and reliability. This paper includes a performance and cost comparison between a continuously welded armored option, the option of lead wire in conduit, and a proposed shielded tray cable. Unique physical characteristics of the cables are discussed. A proposed cable with increased insulation thickness is discussed that insures long-term cable service life under VFD operation, while the shielded coaxial braid contains VFD EMI emissions. Other applications, options, and termination considerations with respect to the petro-chem industry is discussed. Cable performance is documented with theoretical and experimental support.
Building a Reliable VFD System - Brian Shuman - Special consideration must be given to the proper installation and operation of the overall system that comprises the VFD, the motor it controls, and the cable that connects them. From Belden.
The Adventures of Conduit Phil - Stephen H. Lampen - So you're designing your install and you have a choice: conduit or non-conduit. A lot of cable today is made non-conduit, (i.e. "plenum rated"). This is almost always a better deal. Plenum-rated cable can go anywhere you want it to. Cable in conduit can only go where the conduit goes. There are almost no limitations on how much plenum cable you can put in a drop ceiling. Cable in conduit is limited by the size of the conduit, and big conduit is mighty expensive. It's easier to install plenum cable (not to mention the cost of conduit installation), so your labor costs will be a lot lower. You can add, change or modify an installation of plenum cable easily...just add another cable. With conduit, you might have to add new conduit. Not a simple task. From Belden.
Pyrotenax® MI Cable Industrial Wiring Installation Manual - This manual covers storage and installation of Pyrotenax Alloy 825 Sheath MI industrial wiring cables. It is assumed that the cables have been correctly sized and the installation properly designed. From Tyco.
Best Practices for Process Instrumentation Cabling - Saeed M. AL-Abeediah - This article looks at the classes of instrumentation circuits and wiring suitable for each class, signal noises, techniques that minimize the impact of noise and interference on instrument signals, and conclude with a proposed process automation grounding scheme that PAS vendors helped develop - from ISA
Identifying Tray Cables for Your Next Installation - Though rapidly increasing in popularity, tray cables are still a point of confusion for many. While the term “tray cable” is being heard everywhere, many do not understand what exactly a tray cable is or the benefits of using tray cables. Another gray area for many comes from the variety of types of tray cable, what each means and in which applications each type should be used. This paper defines what a tray cable is, describes the different types of tray cables, provide uses and standards for each type of tray cable. It will also provides a reference guide regarding the applications and governing standards for each tray cables type - from Turck.
What to Know When Selecting Your Cable Solution - When selecting the proper cabling for industrial applications, it is important for users to consider performance strengths and limitations associated with each cable solution in order to select cabling that meet an application’s exact needs. This white paper will address the differences between AWM recognized cable and UL listed cable, describing the testing requirements listed cables must satisfy and highlighting the benefits associated with ITC and PLTC cables, such as durability, reliability and longevity – from Turck
The following links are from Olex Australia
Cable Terminology - A list of common Terms
Frequently Asked Questions 1
- How do I determine the rating of a cable?
- How do I measure the amount of current a cable can carry over a particular distance?
- How do I determine the size of cable required for a particular current of a distance?
- Are orange circular PVC cables suitable for use outdoors exposed to sunlight? Is the orange PVC “UV stabilised”?
- What is the correct lug for use on compacted conductors?
- What is the correct lug for use on flexibleconductors?
Frequently Asked Questions 2
- What is the purpose of the screens in instrumentation cables?
- Why are there individually screened pairs or triples as well as overall screened pairs or triples?
- Data cables have screens also – what is the difference between a data cable and an instrumentation cable?
- There are cheaper instrumentation cable types available in the market. What are the differences?
- Are Instrolex cables manufactured to any standards and do they comply with the Hazardous Area Standards?
- What is the voltage rating of Instrolex cables?
- Why are some conductors tinned and others are not?
- What is the difference between a cord and a cable?
- Flexible cables are often used with oil or chemicals. How do you determine which cables will be suitable for these applications?
- Why don’t manufacturers mix PVC and rubber in building a cable? For example, a PVC insulation and CSP sheath.
- What type of flexible cord or cable is used on hot appliances?
- Are the Olex 4 core flexible cord core colours (Brown, Light Blue, White, Green/Yellow), in contradiction with AS/NZS 3000?
- Can I use Flexolex® in reeling applications?
Frequently Asked Questions 3
- Why would a contractor want to use a flat sheathed cable instead of a circular cable?
- PVC is available at various temperature ratings, ie 75°C, 90°C and 90°C-HT. As XLPE is rated at 90°C what's the difference between that and the higher rated PVC?
- Does the change of V105 to V90-HT mean that this grade of PVC has been down rated?
- What does the .6/1kV designation mean?
- Why are generally used cables designated as 450/750V when only 240 volts are being carried?
Fire Rating - A series of questions covering;
- If a cable has a fire rating, does this mean that it won’t burn?
- Can a cable with a fire rating operate continuously in hot environments, for example, very close to a furnace?
- What does a two hour fire rating mean?
- How is the resistance to mechanical impact measured?
- What does the cable system consist of?
Designs and Reliability of Underground Cables and Systems - Hilary Marazzato and Ken Barber - The excellent electrical performance of XLPE is the reason it is now used almost exclusively for insulating low voltage, distribution and transmission cables. While XLPE has far better resistance to moisture than paper insulation or PVC, moisture can affect long term performance of XLPE under the influence of high electrical stress. All low voltage and distribution cables can be installed without precautions, but some moisture protection is advisable for medium voltage cables and cables for sub-transmission. The use of metal sheaths for transmission cables is considered essential.
The Changing Pattern of Power Cables - Discussion on Power Cables with Flexible Conductors - This paper discusses currently available technology, the shortcomings, and the trends for future development.
Cable Condition Monitoring to Improve Reliability - Hilary Marazzato, Ken Barber, Mark Jansen, and Graeme Barnewall - The electric cable industry is definitely in the mature product stage and while there are many incremental developments and improvements, the history and experience gathered enables us to approach issues of cable failure and cable life maintenance with ever improving tools. This paper discusses currently available technology, the shortcomings, and the trends for future development.
Global Trends and Motivation Toward the Adoption of TR-XLPE Cable - P.J. Caronia, A. Mendelsohn, L.H. Gross, J.B. Kjellqvist - Dow Chemical Company - This paper discusses the multitude of accelerated cable aging tests, implications and current global trends for both the TRXLPE and the Copolymer XLPE insulations.
Underground High Voltage Cables: Wiring Europe for the Future - Take a look at the many benefits of underground high voltage cables and learn how they can be put to work for you - From The European Confederation of National Associations of Manufacturers of Insulated Wire and Cable
Specifying Cable for your Next Design - Designers working on products involving cables may find themselves faced with a multitude of considerations before making a cable specification. It's often a good idea to identify some of the major deciding factors before proceeding: for instance, whether the final product is destined for domestic (North American) or international use. From there it's possible to determine whether cable is needed at all, and then to analyze which type or types of cable may be necessary. From Interpower.
Specifying Armoured Instrument and Control Cable - Greg Passler - It’s sometimes difficult to wade through the myriad of options and features available when selecting a control or instrumentation cable for your application. Despite the variety, choosing the more popular attributes and understanding the reasons for doing so will make your task much easier - from Shawflex.
The following papers are from American Polywater.
Estimating Tension When Pulling Cable into Conduit - When you calculate cable pulling tensions, what friction coefficient do you use? Field responses vary . . . some answer ".5" . . . others ".45," ".4," or ".35" . . . and, recently, a European engineer responded "usually .2 to .3." Who's right?? What coefficient of friction should you use in pulling equations to provide the best tension estimates for better field planning and electrical system design? - from American Polywater.
Electrical Cable Cleaning Video - For High Voltage Electrical Splicing - This 8-minute training video on CD demonstrates high voltage cable cleaning procedures during splicing and termination. Methods are shown to remove different types of shields and compounds from insulation. The "Do's and Don'ts" of abrasion, solvent spraying, and cleaning techniques are presented, including safe methods for using SpliceMaster® cleaning solvents - from American Polywater.
Cable Installation Engineering Video - This 13-minute training video examines the engineering aspects of installing cable in conduit. Topics covered include the nature of cable pulling friction; using software to estimate pulling tensions, determine pull feasibility, and design optimal cable runs; the causes of cable failure; cable/lubricant compatibility; lubricant residue combustibility; cable lubricant specification; and more.
Combustible Cable Pulling Lubricant Residue Can Spread Fire! - Well over a decade ago, fires at the Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama and skyscrapers in New York City focused the attention of cable manufacturers and design engineers on the spread of fire through cabling systems. Today's fire-retardant cables are made from specially-formulated, fire-resistant materials. They are tested to special industry specifications. These state-of-the-art, fire-retardant cables show little tendency to ignite and propagate flame, and, thus, do not support the spread of fire. It is common practice to specify fire-retardant cables, as well as "fire stop" materials, to prevent flame from spreading through electrical penetrations in fire-resistant walls, etc. The prevention of fire spread is addressed in the National Electrical Code (Sec. 300-21), as well as numerous building codes and industrial standards. Prevention of flame spread is also desirable for cable pulling compound residue, since they, too, can be present throughout a conduit system.
The following Technical information is from Northwire
Cable Fables - Confusion and Misconceptions about NFPA-79 - Confusion abounds about the “new” NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) regulations pertaining to UL-recognized (AWM style) cable. Long after the practice became widespread,inspectors became aware of the ubiquitous use of AWM (Appliance Wiring Material) style cables in machine interconnecting sensors, actuators, switches and other components—often as part of premolded connector assemblies. The 2007 change to the NFPA-79 electrical code states that AWM-style single-conductor wire or multi-conductor cable is not permitted on machinery unless it is part of a UL-listed assembly. In other words, machine wiring requires UL-listed cable. Clearly, UL-listed cable has been available for many years. So the real question is, which UL listing is appropriate for particular applications?
Flame Testing - Testing for Flame Resistance of Electrical Cables - Harold Gjerning – Agency Compliance Technician - The National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) publishes flame-resistance standards through its published National Electrical Code (NEC). Other agencies, such as UL and CSA also publish standards and also define certain tests for determine flame resistance (or lack thereof). Flame resistance requirements are for the most part governed by local and national codes which define the various levels of flame hazard, plus the severity of the fires to which cables may be exposed. The important considerations are propagation of flame, support of further combustion, generation and propagation of smoke. The NEC deals primarily with fire hazards in buildings, whereas UL and CSA deal with requirements based on use.
Custom Cables for Medical Applications - Medical cables have to meet requirements that are more demanding than the non medical variety. This article discusses these.
Slimmer Cables Can Take More Flexing
Selecting the Right Cable for Foundation fieldbus Control Networks – What you need to know - Sandy Fulton - FF-844 is the Fieldbus Foundation cable compliance specification. FF-844 includes the electrical requirements of ISA 50.02 and IEC 61158, but it also contains some additional requirements which help you know your cable is the right cable for use in FOUNDATION fieldbus control networks.|
Cable Innovation Makes Industrial Networking Faster, Easier & More Reliable - Cable Innovation Makes Industrial Networking Easier, Faster and More Reliable - As engineers and systems integrators gain experience with FOUNDATION™ fieldbus installations, they are realizing the advantages of multi-pair fieldbus trunk lines in plant installations. These users are simplifying installations by merging formerly scattered control and instrument points into common bus segments and junction boxes. The benefits include installation cost savings, more compact cable housing in a tray or conduit and neater assemblage in the junction boxes. Instead of running bundles of single-pair trunk lines, cable specifiers are requesting multi-pair fieldbus trunk cables.
Know Your High-Flex-Life Cable - When your application calls for cable meant to stand the tests of time and motion, you need to know what topurchase and what constitutes product quality. Cable designed to survive 10 million to 20 million flexing cycles is high-flex-life cable. It’s different from high-flex cable, which is designed to be supple and highly flexible. High-flex-life cable may actually feel stiffer than high-flex cable. The two products are distinctly different and mutually exclusive. Try bending the cable, twisting it, pulling it, rolling it back and forth in a track, having it bear weight, rubbing it and subjecting it to extremes of temperature and to solvents, oils and chemicals. Now do these things 10 million times in continuous motion, without ceasing. You’ll learn the difference between highflex- life and high-flex cable quickly – one cable isn’t the same as the next.
Why Order Custom Cable? - Ted Beach - A project engineer can choose off-the-shelf cable – the manufacturer's way – and then adapt it to specific needs, or that same engineer can choose custom cabling designed for a specific purpose – the project engineer's way. There are advantages and disadvantages to both choices. this article reviews these.
Cable Goes Twist Friendly - Constant motion can turn ordinary wiring into a big maintenance item on equipment. Read how continuous motion can destroy ordinary cables and what Northwire is doing to produce cable that will last millions of twist, roll, and bend cycles. Consider how typical industrial-automation equipment works today. Most of it is in use nearly 24/7. It frequently contains robotic elements and assemblies that execute motions repeating hundreds of times or more every minute. No question that these applications put stringent demands on moving parts. This is true even for the cabling that connects moving equipment to controls. This cabling can see millions of flex cycles in the course of normal use. From Machine Design.
Out of the Frying Pan and onto the Cable - Teflon® and Other Fluoropolymers - Teflon, a product developed by DuPont and a common coating on cookware, is one of a group of compounds known as fluoropolymers. Fluoropolymers are fluorocarbon-based polymers with multiple strong carbon–fluorine bonds. Teflon FEP - a different grade than the product used on cookware and other fluoropolymers possess special electrical properties and have a high resistance to solvents, acids and bases. These and other characteristics make fluoropolymers ideal materials used in the manufacture of wire and cable products.
Current Capacity of Copper Conductors
The Following Papers are from Olex New Zealand
Recommendations for Tests after Installation on MV Cables
The Handling of Drums of Cables
General Information on Cable Installation
Comments on Additional Commissioning and Maintenance Tests
Cable Sheath Repairs
Long Term Sustainability of Cables - David Griffiths - This is an excellent paper covering many aspects of cables and cabling.|
Why Not Underground - David Griffiths - Underground cables need a proper burial so therefore the engineer must possess sufficient background knowledge in cable construction, the installation design, actual installation, testing, and maintenance of the underground cables.
The Following useful information is from Caledonian Cables
Fire Performance Standard
Cable Colour Code
Test Method for Fibre Optic Cables
Introduction to Fire Resistant Cable
Fire Performance Testing
Emission of Smoke, Halogens and Toxicity Testing
Should You Specify Cable Glands? - How often have we heard:- "We
don't specify Cable Glands, as long as they have the relevant certification then
it must be fit for purpose. We leave it to contractor to sort out. We are too
busy concentrating on the high value, long lead time items to bother about such
an insignificant value product. In a recent paper presented at the Hazard Ex
conference by a Senior Manager of CENELEC Standards Inspections, it was stated,
"Resources should be directed at eliminating the following common faults;
Unauthorised modifications, badly made-off or unsuitable cable entry devices and
1.15 Armoured Cable Glands – Covers; Reasons for using Cable Glands, Standard for Cable glands, Selection of Cable Glands, Barrier Glands and Gland Sizing - from Control and Instrumentation.
10.14 Drum Schedule - Comprehensive Learning Guide - Drum scheduling is a logical process of putting together pieces of cables to make a spool of cable. Procurement of cables is generally transacted in unit of drum. During construction stage, the lay out (pulling) of cables are drawn out and cut from the drums. For these reasons, proper drum management is necessary to facilitate the procurement processes and to maximize the usage of the cable in the drums - from ELTECHS Engineering & Consulting Co., Ltd.10.14 Cable Drum Handling - A Cable is a valuable product. If handling is not done correctly, the drum and in turn the Cable wound over it can be damaged. At times, damage might not be discovered until after installation, when repairs can be extremely difficult / expensive. The purpose of this guide is to illustrate, how damages can be avoided by correct handling and storage practices - from Gulfcable
Reference Guide to Fiber Optics - This is the Fiber Optic Association's Online Reference Guide. It includes materials from the basics to advanced topics on fiber optics and premises cabling that are to be used as reference materials for those working in the industry, studying for FOA Certifications, for FOA training classes and refresher tutorials for FOA CFOTs.
Optical Fibre Cable - Covers Design, Reliability and Quality, Cable Types, Jacket Material, Colour Coding, Propagation Speed and Delay, Losses and Safety - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Optical Fibre Specifications - The usual fiber specifications you will see are size, attenuation and bandwidth. While manufacturers have other specs that concern them, like numerical aperture (the acceptance angle of light into the fiber), ovality (how round the fiber is), concentricity of the core and cladding, etc., these specs do not affect you. Covers fibre types and Specifications -from LANshack.
Guide To Fiber Optic Network Design - What is “fiber optic network design?” Fiber optic network design refers to the specialized processes leading to a successful installation and operation of a fiber optic network. It includes determining the type of communication system(s) which will be carried over the network, the geographic layout (premises, campus, outside plant (OSP, etc.), the transmission equipment required and the fiber network over which it will operate. Next we have to consider requirements for permits, easements, permissions and inspections. Once we get to that stage, we can consider actual component selection, placement, installation practices, testing, troubleshooting and network equipment installation and startup. Finally, we have to consider documentation, maintenance and planning for restoration in event of an outage - from the Fibre Optic Association.
Fibre Optic Installation - Problem or Opportunity - Increasingly, electrical engineers and installers are becoming involved with fiber optic cable, from a specification, design, and installation standpoint. Misconceptions are common about fiber optic cables themselves, how their handling differs from electrical cable, and how to plan and make high quality fiber optic installations. This "Technical Talk" will focus on installation of fiber optic cable in conduit, contrasting it with electrical cable. The types of fiber available (single mode, multimode, etc.) and the various cable constructions (loose tube, tight tube, armor, etc.) are beyond the scope of this discussion. Please be aware that there are a great number of fiber cable types and constructions, and the discussion can only cover general principles of application for most fiber optic cables - from polywater.
Analysis of Duct Placement Factor in Fibre Optic Pulling - Many fiber optic outside plant installations involve long "straight" runs of cable pulled into duct. The pulling equations have shown good tension prediction ability in the installation of heavy cables in straight runs. However, these same pulling equations predict that fiber can be pulled much longer distances than today’s reality. Based on simple friction theory, it should be possible to pull fiber cable, with a weight of 100 to 200 lbs/1000 feet (150 to 300 Kg/Km), in the range of 15,000 to 30,000 feet (4.5 to 9.0 Km) with pulling forces under 600 lbs. This assumes friction coefficients under .2, which are routinely measured with our Polywater® Fiber Optic Lubricants. But experience shows that maximum pulling distances of 3000 to 6000 feet (1 to 2 Km)--at under 600 lbs (2.7 Kn)--are more realistic, even with a new, properly placed duct system. What produces this error of a factor of 5 or more? - from polywater.
Calculating the Maximum Attenuation for Optical Fibre Links - This document describes how to calculate the maximum attenuation for an optical fiber. You can apply this methodology to all types of optical fibers in order to estimate the maximum distance that optical systems use - from Cisco.
The Fiber Optic Association - The FOA is a international non-profit educational organization that is dedicated to promoting professionalism in the field of fiber optics through education, certification and standards.
Air Assisted Fibre Optic Cable Installation - High Air Speed Blowing, Air-Assist, Push/Pull Installation, Air Blown Cable, and Cable Jetting; all describe new methods to get cable into conduit using air. To date, the primary use of these methods has been to install fiber optic cable. Air-assisted fiber optic installation was developed and explored in the Netherlands as well as the United Kingdom in the 1980’s. While blowing methods are used to install individual fibers in tubes in LAN’s, this article will focus on the outside plant installation of jacketed, multi-fiber cable in duct. While this is typically underground duct, blowing will work for aerial duct installations as well - from American Polywater.
How Do you Identify the Correct Tray Cables for your Next Application? - The term tray cable is being heard everywhere but what exactly is a tray cable and what are its benefits? This educational paper from Turck will: