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Flow Instrumentation and Measurement

Ultrasonic Flow Metering

A full page of Ultrasonic Flowmetering technical links- thanks to our sponsor  Zedflo Australia

V-Cone and Wet Gas Flow Metering  

This is a swag of information on this innovative technology - Thanks to our sponsor McCrometer.
Subsea Flow Measurement - Marcus Davis Flow measurement in subsea production systems, modules and templates is a challenge for flow meters. The complexity of subsea production systems ranges from simple satellite wells with one line to complex multiple well sites with a network of lines. Several pipe lines join together below the surface and will eventually extend to a fixed platform, Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel (FPSO), or perhaps a pipeline running to a land-based operation. Flow measurement is required in all phases of these operations, especially at well heads and where lines merge -Thanks to our sponsor McCrometer.

The Following general links are thanks to Coleparmer
Selecting the Right Flowmeter Part 1 
Selecting the Right Flowmeter; Part 2
Complete selection of Flowmeters
Frequently Asked Questions: Flowmeters
How Volumetric Flowmeters Work
Volumetric Flow Rates vs Mass Flow Rates
Velocity-Profile Deviations Influence Flowmeter Performance
Installing your Flow Sensor
Flowmeter Applications
High-Viscosity Flowmeters

General Flow Links - The purpose of this website is to provide information and knowledge about those people who have made substantial contributions to the field of flow measurement. There are three levels or tiers of people on this site including Pioneers of Instrumentation - Historical figures who have developed theories or made important contributions to flow measurement. Legends of Flow - Living or contemporary people who have developed theories, founded companies, or otherwise made important contributions to flow measurement and Movers and Shakers of Flow - Important people and decision makers in flow who have not yet achieved legendary status, but who nonetheless play an important role today in the field of flow measurement and instrumentation. One can also find plenty of technical information on this site.
10.13 An Hour with Doctor Flowmeter - Walt Boyes - How do you pick a flow meter?  Picking a flow meter takes both knowledge of the kinds of meters available and the kind of empirically derived knowledge that comes from experience.  If you are like most people, you start by thinking about kinds of meters, their features and their hardware and software. You might start to build the meter from the application requirements. There are lots of flow devices, for both liquids and gases, and closed and open channels. What we’ll do here is to look at some of the most common, and try to home in on some simple ways to select and use them. Note that there are at least 10 different types…and they don’t all work on all applications -  from the excellent Spitzer and Boyes website.
Fundamentals of Gas Measurement - Pat Donnelly - This is a super paper on the basics of Gas Flow Measurement. It covers the history, measuring volume, types of flowmeters and temperature correction - from CEESI.
The American School of Gas Measurement Technology - This is a GREAT website with loads of flow instrumentation technical links.
Flowmeter Selection Strategies for Liquid Measurements Part 1 - How to Choose the Right Technology for Liquid Measurements - John Frederick - With so many different flow measurement technologies available, optimal flowmeter selection can be difficult and confusing. In an effort to provide some valuable strategies to simplify the flowmeter selection process, here we provide the first installment of a two-part article addressing flow measurement. The article describes common types of liquid flowmeters and provides guidelines for their selection and usage. It also discusses the influence of fluid properties and installation effects on meter performance, and examines methods and equipment for accurate calibration - from
Flowmeter Selection Strategies Part 2 - How to Choose the Right Technology for Gas Measurements - John Frederick - Covers the topics typically covered in a comprehensive gas flow measurement course. The following describes common types of gas flowmeters and provides guidelines for their selection and usage. It also discusses the influence of basic gas properties on meter performance and examines methods and equipment for accurate calibration -
Flowmeter Selection Strategies for Gas Measurement Applications - In this second installment of a two-part article, we address the topics typically covered in a comprehensive gas flow measurement course. The following describes common types of gas flowmeters and provides guidelines for their selection and usage. It also discusses the influence of basic gas properties on meter performance and examines methods and equipment for accurate calibration - from 
Flow & Measurement Articles - This super website contains an absolute "swag" of published articles on flow and measurement written by Dr. Jesse Yoder.  These articles have been published in various trade journals beginning in 1995. 
Focus on Liquid Flow Measurement -  Controlling the flow rate of liquids is a key control mechanism for any chemical plant.  There are many different types of devices available to measure flow. This article from cheresources covers some of the basics.
Pioneers of Flow Measurement -Founding the Technologies of Today - Jesse Yoder, Ph.D - It is easy to forget in today’s fast-paced world the importance of the many thinkers and pioneers who have made modern-day technologies possible. This is as true in the area of flow measurement as it is in other technology segments. The following looks at some of the pioneers of flow measurement, who formulated many of the principles that underlie the sophisticated flow instruments of today - An excellent article from
The Effect of Ambient Conditions on Flow Measurement - David W. Spitzer, P.E - The entire flow measurement system should be operated within its constraints in order to provide accurate flow measurements. This means that each component of the flow measurement system should be considered to ensure that it is operated properly.
From David W Spitzer and Flow control Network
Top Tips for flowmeter selection- The huge array of flow technology options on offer can make selecting the correct flowmeter for an application a bewildering task. A broad range of factors can influence flowmeter selection, of which cost is just one. Dr Bryan Franklin, Flow Products Manager, ABB Limited recommends a list of top tips for selecting the best all round flow system for an application.
Let it flow - Measuring the flow of liquids in industrial plants is critical
- In some operations, the ability to conduct accurate flow measurements is so important it can make the difference between making a profit and taking a loss. In other cases, inaccurate flow measurements or failure to take measurements can cause serious or disastrous results. Includes a flowmeter selection guide. Thanks to ISA and InTech.
Differential Producing Flowmeters- From Caldon
The Water Measurement Manual -US Bureau of Reclamation - A terrific 14 chapter US Government Water Resource Research Laboratory reference site with absolutely everything you need to know about water flow measurement.
Calibration and Standards in Flow Measurement - Richard Paton - Calibration is defined as follows: ‘The set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system and the corresponding values realized by standards.’ It is important to recognize at the outset the definition of a ‘calibration’ and to note that the ‘comparison’ applies only to the conditions at the time of the calibration. The purpose of calibration is to increase the confidence in the reading obtained from the flowmeter in service - From IDC.
Flow and Level Calibration Information Notes (INX Inc)
Flow Conversions
Flowmeters, Liquid -, a very nice tutorial on flow meters.
Flow Measurement information Notes (INX Inc)
Flowmeters for water and wastewater applications - (Controlotron)
Pipe Flow Rate Calculation Calculate Pipe Pressure Drop - This excellent Pipe flow calculation web site offers fluid flow calculators for pressure drop calculation, pipe diameter calculation, control valves sizing, air flow calculation, Venturi tube and orifice flow, Reynolds number calculation, pressure drop in natural gas line, lpg pipe sizing calculator, Prandtl probe, thermal energy calculator and more...- from Pipeflow Calculations.

The following technical articles are from the excellent publication Flow Control Network.
Straight-Run Requirements for Flow Accuracy - David W. Spitzer  - Have you ever seen the inside of a carbon steel pipe used for sodium chloride brine service? The inside pipe wall has ridges, mountains, boils and other strange shapes. How can you accurately measure flow in such a pipe? The upstream and downstream piping might be straight in your installation. However, the inside of the pipe can be far from straight/smooth. In this application, the strange shapes on the inside of the pipe can affect the velocity profile and, in turn, the flow measurement - from
Which of the following Flowmeters can Measure both Forward and Reverse Flow? - David W. Spitzer -A. Differential-Pressure B. Magnetic C. Turbine D. Ultrasonic - The answers from can be found in this article.
Flowmeter Turndown Overkill - Is 1,000-to-1 Really Better Than 100-to-1? - David W. Spitzer - It would be fair to say that the overwhelming majority of instrument suppliers make valid claims about the instruments they sell. For example, a supplier may claim that its flowmeters perform within a specified accuracy, such as 0.5 percent of flowrate. The supplier has presumably tested the flowmeter and found that its performance falls within this specification. The user can then decide whether this particular flowmeter meets the needs of the application - from 
Pressure & Temperature Tap Placement -David W Spitzer - Deciding Between Upstream and Downstream Location for a Flow Metering Application - from 
Fluid Density’s Effect on a DP Flow Control Loop – A short but useful article on how an orifice-plate flowmeter measurement in a flow control loop is affected by an increase in fluid density – from Spitzer and Boyes
Flowmeter Piping Requirements How Much Straight Run Is Enough?- Greg Livelli - A very useful technical paper detailing straight run requirements for various types of flowmeters. 
A Primer on Primary Elements -Understanding a Key Aspect of DP Flow Measurement - Jesse Yoder -A general description of some flowmeter types
Calculating for Calibration & Conversion-Factor Inconsistency-  David W. Spitzer -Accurate flow measurement often entails careful attention to detail. Errors can be introduced when calculations in different parts of the flow measurement system are performed using different standard conditions. From P.E and

Coriolis Flow Meters 

A page full of great technical information

Custody Transfer Flow Meters

Calculating and Optimizing Accuracy & Repeatability of Natural Gas Custody

Dall Tube Flow Meters

New Page Coming Soon

Elbow Flow Meters  

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Flare Flow Meters

Measuring Flare Gas within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme - Simon Harwood and Jack Koeken, Sr - Prior to the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, the measurement of flare gas on oil and gas production facilities in the North Sea was driven mainly by statutory regulations that required operators to simply report emissions to the Environment Agency. Consequently, there was never an economic incentive to install metering equipment. Importantly, depending on the Industry and size of the facility, the Trading Scheme stipulates different levels of accuracy for the instrumentation used to measure both fuel gas and flare gas. For the oil and gas industry, flow meters used to report emissions from flares fall within the Tier 3 accuracy level which, means they must have a degree of uncertainty (accuracy) better than ±7.5 percent of the measured value - from Fluid Components.

Flow Conditioning

Dealing with Unpredictable Flow Profiles - Eliminating Transitional Flow Effects via Flow Conditioning - Mike Bess & Don Lundberg - Flow conditioners are widely recognized and applied in order to correct flow profile distortions caused by upstream flow disturbances. These unpredictable flow profile variations can be neutralized by a well-designed flow conditioner. Such flow conditioners are capable of presenting a consistent and predictable outlet flow profile to the flowmeter, resulting in accurate and repeatable flow measurements. However, often overlooked in wide-turndown flow measurement applications with Reynolds number ranges that go below 4000, are the effects of three naturally occurring transitional flow profile phenomena. These transitional flows have dramatic differences in the flow velocity profile that disrupt flowmeter accuracy and repeatability. A well-designed flow conditioner can also efficiently neutralize transitional flow effects - from 

Flow Metering Mass Balance

Improve Material Balance by Using Proper Flowmeter Corrections - S Peramanu and J. C Wah - Process plants frequently encounter mass imbalances. These can be attributed to various factors, but often they lead back to inappropriate measuring devices, improper calibration, incorrect installation or incorrect interpretation of the measured flows. There are well-established guidelines available to ensure appropriate flowmeter selection based on the process conditions and control requirements - from Hydrocarbon Processing.

Flow Meters for Leak Detection

Non-Intrusive System Detects Leaks Using Mass Measurement-By Don Bloom, Vice President, Controlotron.
Leak Detection and prevention - Joseph Baumoel, Controlotron, USA, provides an overview of the ongoing problem of pipeline spills and evaluates the technologies available for the identification and control of pipeline leaks.
Pipeline Integrity - New Innovations in Leak Detection for Hydrocarbon Applications - Frank Fromm - In order to ensure the integrity of their pipelines and remain in compliance with new and tougher laws, a greater number of businesses are now making the conscientious decision to install advanced leak-detection systems. These systems are capable of detecting both the presence and location of a leak, allowing a pipeline operator to address the situation quickly and effectively – before the leak can harm property or people. A variety of leak-detection systems are currently available and corporations must thoroughly evaluate the benefits of each. A leak-detection system should demonstrate consistently high levels of sensitivity, accuracy, reliability, and robustness. It should be easy for a pipeline operator to learn, understand and use. Ideally, the system should also integrate software with instrumentation in order to enhance performance and simplify maintenance. After reviewing several recent U.S. and international laws pertaining to leak detection for pipelines, this article takes a detailed look at one innovative leak detection system and demonstrate how a Taiwanese petrochemical company put this system to good use
- from

Selecting and Installing a Flowmeter

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Impact Flowmeter  

New Page Coming Soon

Magnetic Flowmeters

10.13 5 Keys to Selecting a Mag Meter - When choosing an electromagnetic flow meter, it’s important to consider a selection process that will provide the best possible solution for your flow meter application. Electromagnetic flow meters are typically the meter of choice when considering cost, accuracy, and longevity. Here are some tips that can assist with ensuring that the electromagnetic flow meter is the right choice. This E-Book is from our sponsor McCrometer.

The following articles are from  Emerson Process Management.
Installation and Grounding of Magmeters in Typical and Electrolytic Process Applications - Proper installation and grounding of magnetic flowmeters is important for accurate, reliable measurement performance. Stray AC or DC currents through the fluid or instrument can produce noise signals that may in turn interfere with the relatively low flow signals generated in today's modern pulsed DC magmeter.
Magnetic Flowmeter Material Selection Guide -A general resource for the selection of materials for the magnetic flowmeter. One of the advantages of the electromagnetic flowmeter is that it is suitable for a wide variety of applications including severely corrosive chemicals and highly abrasive slurries. The key to this versatility is that there is a large choice of materials available for the electrodes and the flowtube liner.
Permeation of Teflon Flowtube Liners and Installation Techniques to Reduce the Rate of Permeation - Ways to Reduce Permeation including Liner Quality, Liner Thickness, and Temperature

Magnetic Flowmeter Applications

10.13 Next Generation Mag Meter Solves Water Treatment Plants Tight Installation Dilemma - Michelle Pawlowicz - The flow meter selected is ideal for the needs of the Lake Huron WTP because it is economical for large line sizes, features a compact insertion design for ease of installation in compact spaces with limited access points and can be installed and maintained without shutting down flow - from our sponsor McCrometer.  

10.13 Flow Measurement in a Pump Station - Michelle Pawlowicz - Water losses within the distribution system can raise costs for both plants and customers. As a result, many municipal plants are being forced to run their plants and operations as efficiently as possible. Water supply issues, budget constraints and environmental concerns have raised the importance of understanding plant production and losses. Acquiring the ability to measure flow effectively at various points within the distribution system will provide data regarding the quantity of water pumped into a treatment facility, and the quantity of water pumped from the treatment facility throughout the distribution system. Measuring flow in each pump station will provide a reference point to these quantities of water flowing through the pump station. This will assist with maintenance planning, provide data references for potential loss analysis and accurately determine how much water is transported for billing and revenue processes - from our sponsor McCrometer.  

Mass Flowmeter

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New Developments in Metering Technology

Multiphase Flow Metering 

Exceptional Multiphase Metering technical information on this dedicated page.

Open Channel Flow Meters, Weirs and Flumes

3.13 Flow like an Egyptian -The Basics of Open Channel Flow – Walt Boyes - There are two basic ways to measure flow in an open channel or conduit. The first is to use one of the formulas like Manning’s Equation, which have been developed for open channel flow in ditches, rivers, and canals. You must calculate a wetted perimeter, and know the slope of the conduit, and guess at the roughness of the bottom of the conduit, or pipe. The second method is to measure the height of the flowing stream at a known distance behind (upstream) of a predictable hydraulic jump, such as a flume or weir - from the excellent Spitzer and Boyes website.

Orifice Plates  

A page full of great technical papers / articles on Orifice Plates, associated standards and associated equipment

Pitot Tubes and Annubars

Annubar® Flow Handbook - This excellent reference book provides all of the information necessary to accurately measure fluid flow using the Rosemount 485 Annubar primary element.

Positive Displacement Meters

New Page Coming Soon

Rotary-vane and Nutating disk meters

New Page Coming Soon

Ultrasonic Flow Meters

 A full page of Ultrasonic Flowmetering technical links- thanks to our sponsor  Zedflo Australia

Steam Flow Measurement and Meters

Behind the Scenes of Steam Flow Measurement - Jesse Yoder - Steam, or vaporized water, is an important part of our daily lives. It is easy enough to experience steam; simply boiling water will produce it. But steam has equally important uses as a source of power for ships, in paper production, and for cooling and heating buildings. Probably the most important use of steam is as a source of power in electricity production. Steam is difficult to measure accurately, mainly because of its sensitivity to changes in temperature and pressure. Steam is often classified into three types, which reflect the different pressure and temperature conditions that steam is subject to - from ISA and InTech
Using Meters to Measure Steam Flow - Jesse Yoder - When people hear about fluid measurement, they usually think of checking either liquid or gas flow. This belief is natural, since about 90% of fluid measurements are for these two applications. In a worldwide survey of flowmeter users, 68% measured liquids, 22% gas, and only 10% steam. While 10% may not seem like a large percentage, it represents a significant number of measurements. Many companies measure steam for purposes of internal custody transfer and for utility applications in power generation and chemical plants - from and Automation Research Corp
Understanding Steam Flow Meters - Steam flow measurement is important in this context because steam is widely used as a source of power in the production of electricity. As the costs of energy rise, many companies are looking to increase efficiencies in their energy and power generation. As a result, more attention is being paid to steam flow measurement - Thanks to Chemical Professionals.

Target Meters

New Page Coming Soon

Thermal Flow Meters 

The following links are from our valued ICEweb sponsors Austral Powerflo Solutions and Magnetrol
Are Your Gas Flow Rates Too Low to Use Conventional Measurement Technologies?- by Wayne Shannon
3.13 Tracking Natural Gas with Flowmeters - Wayne Shannon - Thermal mass flowmeters provide advantages over other options for metering the consumption of natural gas by individual combustion units throughout the facility.
3.13 Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement Handbook - Accurate mass flow measurement of gas is difficult to obtain. Thermal mass flow technology is a method of gas flow measurement that does not require correction for changes in process temperature or pressure. Thermal mass flow technology also has a benefit of measurement at low velocities and greater turndown capabilities than those obtainable with other gas flow measurement devices.

3.13 A New Paradigm for Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeters - John G. Olin - The ASME Standard and Recent Technology Advances - Since the publication of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard on thermal dispersion mass flowmeters in 2011, there have been major advancements in the technology. A review of that standard and a discussion of technology advancements provide the background to understanding ground breaking innovations in sensor design. That, along with a comprehensive algorithm facilitated by current hyper-fast microprocessors, has created a new paradigm for the measurement of the mass flowrate of gases by means of thermal dispersion technology - from Sierra Instruments.
A Standard for Users and Manufacturers of  Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeters - Dr John G Olin - This 49 page standard establishes common terminology and gives guidelines for the quality, description, principle of operation, selection, installation and flow calibration of thermal dispersion flowmeters for the measurement of flowrate and to a lesser extent, the volumetric flowrate of the flow of a fluid in a closed conduit. Multivariable versions additionally measure fluid temperature. Thermal dispersion mass flowmeters are applicable to the flow of single-phase pure gases and gas mixtures of known composition and, less commonly, to single-phase liquids of known composition - from Sierra Instruments.
Flowmeter Selection for Improved Gas Flow Measurements: a comparison of DP and Thermal Dispersion Technologies - As the costs of fuels and consumables continue to rise, the ability to accurately measure the amount used in a process becomes significant in controlling costs and determining bottom line profits. Therefore, it is important to implement a strategy of adding cost-effective, accurate, gas flow measuring devices to heaters, boilers and cogeneration equipment. From AMS Instrumentation & Calibration Pty Ltd and 

Turbine Meters  

Diesel Fuel Flow Measurement – Avoiding Common Pitfalls - As the price of fuel increases and environmental regulations tighten, it is more important than ever to measure the amount of fuel used by diesel engines and standby power generation systems. However, accurate monitoring of diesel fuel consumption presents a significant challenge for end users in various industries. The following white paper addresses a number of common pitfalls to help ensure the best flow measurement solution for diesel fuel applications - from Flow Technology.
Flowmeter Spin - History & Evolution of Turbine Flow Measurement - Josse Yoder - While the Greeks and Romans had their own means of measuring flow, the first flowmeter of the modern era was invented by Reinhard Woltman. Woltman was an engineer who came up with the idea for the turbine meter while studying the loss of water in open canals. This makes the turbine flowmeter the oldest type among the group of new and traditional technology flowmeters. Woltman’s original design, along with his name, persists in the Woltman turbine meter. This meter is used mainly to measure water in bulk amounts. The idea behind turbine meters is quite intuitive. Turbine meters have a spinning rotor with propeller-like blades that is mounted on bearings in a housing. The rotor spins as water or other fluid passes over it. The rotor turns due to the force of the current. Flowrate is proportional to the rotational speed of the rotor. A variety of methods are used to detect the rotor speed, including a mechanical shaft and an electronic sensor - from Flow Research.

Variable Area Flow Meters - Rotameters

Introduction to Rotameters - The rotameter is an industrial flowmeter used to measure the flowrate of liquids and gases. The rotameter consists of a tube and float. The float response to flowrate changes is linear, and a 10-to-1 flow range or turndown is standard. In the case of OMEGA® laboratory rotameters, far greater flexability is possible through the use of correlation equations. The rotameter is popular because it has a linear scale, a relatively long measurement range, and low pressure drop. It is simple to install and maintain - from Omega
Variable Area Meter Sizing - This useful technical data sheet details sizing calculations for both Gas and Liquid VA meters -From  King Instrument Company 

V-Cone and Wet Gas Metering  

This is a swag of information on this innovative technology - Thanks to our sponsor McCrometer.

Flow Venturi and Flow Nozzles  

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Velocity Flow Meters

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Vortex Shedding Flow Meters

Vortex Shedding Tutorial - Wade Mattar and James Vignos - This excellent Tutorial covers; Principle of Operation,  Calculation of Mass Flow and Standard Volume,  Flowmeter Construction, Application Considerations,  Meter Selection, Meter Installation and Meter Configuration - from Invensys Foxboro.
Vortex Shedding Flowmeters - Thanks to Caldon
Why Your Vortex Meter Shows Zero - Liquid flow of a process fluid into a vessel was visually confirmed. However a vortex-shedding flowmeter in the feed pipe measured zero flow. The flowmeter was removed from service and was found to function properly on the flow bench in the instrument shop. Which of the following problems could cause this issue to occur? From David W Spitzer P.E and Flow Control Network.