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Conditioning Orifice Plate Technology; Taking the Standard to a New Level of Capability - A very interesting article from Emerson Process Management which highlights the advantages of this innovative design which enables multiple benefits without compromising performance.
The Following information from the CEESI
technical library whilst being old covers many fundamentals very well.
Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters -T. Dean Graves - The title of this paper may mislead the reader to think the purpose is to simply discuss the mechanics of operating orifice recorders. Proper maintenance and operations of the orifice meter is much more encompassing when one realizes the complete aspect and importance of gas measurement with the orifice meter station.
Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes - Ramon Menchaca - The natural gas transmission industry is periodically required to adapt to new or updated techniques of gas measurement. This Is due In part to changes made to existing Industry standards which must also be updated to incorporate new research data. The paper discusses the design, tolerances and meter tube inspection procedures and requirements.
Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes - Kenneth E. Embry - The most widely accepted means of measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the Orifice Meter. The primary elements of the orifice meter include the orifice plate, orifice fittings or flanges, adjacent piping and flow conditioner or straightening vanes which make up the Meter Tube.
Effects Of Abnormal Conditions Of Orifice Meters - Zaki D. Husain - The orifice meter has been a standard in the gas industry for years. With proper operation and maintenance, the orifice meter has proven to be an accurate method to measure natural gas. The orifice meter is one of the most basic devices ever invented for measurement However, it also has associated problems as a result of its simplicity. With the increasing demand and prices of natural gas minimizing error in measurement has become essential.
Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement - Zaki D. Husain - Orifice meters are the most common meters used for hydrocarbon flow measurement. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors. Different standards on orifice flowmeters and measurement uncertainties are referenced.
Effects of Abnormal Conditions on the Accuracy of Orifice Measurement - Bill Johansen - The effects of abnormal conditions on orifice plate based flow measurement is a broad topic. The research on abnormal effects has typically focused on issues such as the effects of bent plates, plate eccentricity, dulled orifice bore leading edge, the presence of water and liquified hydrocarbons, and many other conditions found in pipeline orifice meters. This paper discusses potential problems in four areas of orifice based flow measurement: calculation of discharge coefficients, calculation of expansion factors, flow conditioning, and gas sampling.
Effects of Entrained Liquid on Orifice Measurement - Bill Johansen - Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As this gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? This paper discusses four test programs that were conducted to examine the effects of entrained liquids on orifice meter performance.
The Effects of Oil Coating on the Measurement of Gas Flow Using Sharp Edged Orifice Flowmeters - Bill Johansen and Tom Kegel - Orifice plates are known to be sensitive to a variety of effects due to dimensional variations and flowing fluid conditions. A number of studies have been performed to determine the specific effects of water entrainment and two phase flow on orifices, but the results were not well documented and were limited in scope. This paper describes an investigation funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to determine the effects of a coating of compressor oil on the flowmetering performance of orifice plates. A viscous oil is used to coat only the plate or both the plate and upstream piping. The effect of this coating on orifices having different diameter ratios (B) in several different line sizes is evaluated by statistically comparing the discharge coefficient for the wetted orifice to the discharge coefficient when dry.
Effect of Liquid Entrainment on the Accuracy of Orifice Meters for Gas Flow Measurement - V.C. Ting and G. P. Corpron - This paper presents the results of a study to show that a small amount of liquid entrainment in an orifice meter can affect the accuracy of gas flow measurement.
The Orifice Expansion Correction for a 50 mm Line Size at Various Diameter Ratios - Walt Seidl - The expansion coeffiecient or factor for a compressible flowmeter corrects for the change in pressure and density as the fluid is accelerated through the flowmeter. This paper describes the results of a test program to determine the expansion factors for flange-tapped sharp-edged orifices with diameter ratios between 0.242 and 0.726 in a nominal 50 mm (2 inch) line.
Effects of Abnormal Conditions on the Accuracy of Orifice Measurements - Steve Caldwell - The orifice meter is one of the most widely utilized measurement devices and is one of he oldest, next to the bucket. The orifice meter is one of the most basic devices ever invented for measurement and has many advantages because of its simplicity and also has many associated problems as a result of its simplicity.
Effects of Abnormal Conditions on the Accuracy of Orifice Measurements - Taft Snowdon -The orifice meter remains the foremost measurement device used on the industry for hydrocarbon flow. The primary element of the orifice meter is the orifice plate and orifice meter tube consisting of the orifice fitting, or flanged pressure taps, adjacent piping and the flow conditioner or straightening vanes. The complete system also includes the temperature and pressure measuring devices used often called the secondary element and the pressure lines from the taps to the pressure instruments. The American National Standard Institute/American Petroleum Institute Standard 2530 (ANSI/API 2530) also called the AGA-3, provides specific recommendations for the manufacture, inspection and installation of an orifice meter. In order to ensure accuracy, with minimum uncertainty, these guidelines and inspection procedure should be established by taking relatively fundamental measurements of the primary element components.
New Data for the Quadrant Edged Orifice - Charles Britton and Steve Stark - New experimental data is presented for both quadrant-edge and sharp-edge orifice plates used in low Reynolds number applications.
Effects of Abnormal Conditions on the Accuracy of Orifice Measurements - Steve Caldwell