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McCrometer is a leading global flow instrumentation specialist which specialises in the design, manufacture, installation and testing of flow metering solutions. Instrument, process, facility and consulting engineers worldwide have confidently chosen McCrometer’s flow meters for 50 years. McCrometer’s flow technologies serve in a wide range of complex and harsh applications. McCrometer's application engineers, researchers and designers apply their expertise in flow physics and real-world operating dynamics. The results are some of the most accurate, innovative and trusted flow meters on the market. McCrometer is a global leader in providing flow measurement solutions including differential pressure (DP), electromagnetic, propeller, and variable area technologies. Its flow meter products are used in many liquid, gas and steam fluid processes in various industries: Chemical, Electric Power, Facilities, Food, HVAC, Irrigation, Oil/Gas, Water and Waste Water.
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V-Cone Technical Brief - English
- The McCrometer V-Cone Flowmeter is a
patented technology that accurately measures flow over a
wide range of Reynolds numbers, under all kinds of conditions and for a variety
of fluids. It operates on the same physical principle as other
differential pressure-type flowmeters, using the theorem
of conservation of energy in fluid flow through a pipe. The V-Cone’s
remarkable performance characteristics, however, are the result of its unique
design. It features a centrally-located cone inside the tube. This technical
brief gives a comprehensive overview of the technology.
Performance Study of a V-Cone Flowmeter in Swirling Flow
- This report describes a test to evaluate the measurement accuracy of three
150mm (6 inch) V Cone meters of different beta ratios in swirling flow.
2.13 New Method for Accurate High Reynolds Metering uses Water Calibration for Significant Cost Savings - Jonathan Hollist and Nick Voss - Cone meters have been shown to be an accurate measuring device for various flow applications. In order to maintain accuracy, Cone meters need to be calibrated to determine the discharge coefficient (Cd). The Cd often changes with Reynolds number. The same meter can have a different Cd for gas applications (high Reynolds numbers) than for liquid applications (low Reynolds numbers). Therefore a Cone meter needs to be calibrated over the entire range of Reynolds numbers for its specific application. In order to reach the high Reynolds numbers in most gas applications calibration need to be done in a gas lab. This often is verily costly and time consuming. To save time and money, accuracy is often sacrificed and a Cone meter slated for a gas application is calibrated in the manufacturer’s water facility. McCrometer has developed a method that can predict the Cd at high Reynolds numbers based on a water calibration at small Reynolds numbers. This paper discusses the accuracy of this method.
Don’t Let Valves Come Between You and Accurate Flow Measurement - Jim Panek - Getting valves and flow meters to work together is sometimes a challenging task within industrial water and wastewater applications. Valves tend to create the kind of irregular media flow patterns in pipelines that make it a real challenge to achieve accurate flow measurement of liquids, gas or steam. That’s why many types of popular liquid flow meters require straight pipe runs. Unfortunately, the nature of the process or the kind of space required for long straight runs of pipe is often an impossible luxury in many of today’s plants.
The following papers are made available thanks to Dr Bob
Peters of McCrometer
New Compact Wet Gas Meter Based on a Microwave Water Detection Technique and Differential Pressure Flow Measurement- Dr Øystein Lund Bø and Dr Ebbe Nyfors, Roxar Flow Measurement, Dr Tore Løland, Statoil and Dr Jean Paul Couput, TotalFinaElf
Testing the Wafer V-Cone Flowmeters in accordance with API 5.7 “Testing Protocol for Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices” in the CEESI Colorado Test Facility- Dr R.J.W.Peters – Flow Measurement Technology Manager, McCrometer,Dr Richard Steven – Multiphase Meter Development Manager, McCrometer, Steve Caldwell – Vice President, CEESI, Bill Johansen – Engineering Manager, CEESI
Tests of the V-Cone Flow Meter at Southwest Research Institute® and Utah State University in Accordance with the New API Chapter 5.7 Test Protocol - Dr. Darin L. George – Senior Research Engineer, Southwest Research Institute, Mr. Edgar B. Bowles – Fluid Systems Engineering Manager, Southwest Research Institute, Ms. Marybeth Nored – Research Engineer, Southwest Research Institute, Dr. R.J.W. Peters – Flow Measurement Technology Manager, McCrometer, Dr. Richard Steven – Multiphase Development Manager, McCrometer
The Use of a V-Cone Fuel Flow Meter to Measure the Coke Oven Gas and Natural Gas Flow in a Combined Heat and Power Plant
Oil and Gas
Proven Flow Measurement Solutions for the Oil and Gas Industry - The V-Cone® flow meter is an advanced technology that takes differential pressure flow measurement to a new level. The V-Cone flow meter has proven its performance in the oil and gas industry in some of the harshest operating conditions and for the widest variety of fluid types. In these applications, the V-Cone flow meter consistently outperforms traditional dP devices and other major flow technologies.
Field Experiences with V-Cone Technology - Philip A. Lawrence -This paper describes the principles and field use of the V-cone D.P. flowmeter used in the role of wellhead metering, injection measurement allocation metering / custody transfer both topside and sub-sea in on-offshore oil and gas production applications.
Pumping Station Flow Measurement
2.13 Pipeline Crude Pumping Station Solves Flow Measurement Problem with V-Cone Meter - Nick Voss - A regional light crude pipeline operator in the mountain states of the U.S. was looking for an economical, accurate method to measure crude inventory flow within its pumping stations. The pipeline operator specializes in transporting partially processed crude to other lines or main terminals. Accurate flow measurement is essential to the cost-effective operation of pipelines. While highly precise, and often expensive, flow meters are required to perform custody-transfer measurements for payment purposes, there are also intermediate process measurement points within pumping stations, for example, that can be served with less expensive technology.
Compressor Surge Control Flow Measurement
V-Cone Flowmeter Solves Compressor Control Problems for the Oil & Gas Industry - To prevent a compressor from surging, a ﬂow metering device is placed in the compressor piping to monitor the gas ﬂow through the compressor. One of the advantages of using McCrometer’s V-Cone® Flowmeter is due to its unique design. The patented ﬂowmeter offers an advanced, differential pressure ﬂow technology that acts as its own ﬂow conditioner, fully conditioning and mixing the ﬂow prior to measurement.
Custody Transfer Measurement
Custody Transfer Measurement with the V-Cone Flowmeter - Stephen A. Ifft - This paper discusses the approval of the McCrometer V-Cone flowmeter for custody transfer measurement in Canada.
2.13 Custody Transfer Flow Measurement with New Technologies - Stephen A. Ifft - New technologies can often bring advances to the operational processes within many industries. These advances can improve the overall production of a facility with better performance, better reliability, and lower costs. Obstacles exist, however, to the introduction and use of these new technologies. The natural gas industry has such obstacles, particularly with the use of new technology for custody transfer flow measurement. Paper standards from international organizations like the International Organization for Standardization, the American Petroleum Institute and the American Gas Association are examples of these obstacles. While these paper standards serve to protect and guide companies in their use of technology, they prevent the introduction of new and often better technology. A reform is underway in the natural gas industry to allow companies to take advantage of newer technologies that were not accessible before. This will hopefully redefine the phrase “approved for custody transfer measurement.” This phrase has been used incorrectly around the world for decades since none of the organizations listed above actually approve meters for custody transfer measurement. If companies are to reap the benefits of newer and better technology, the industry must continue to reform the existing paper standards that exclude every technology but those that are decades old. As new technologies become available, the industry must have procedures ready for evaluating their possible benefits and detriments. Without these procedures, the advances of the modern world will be overlooked. McCrometer Inc. is a manufacturer of flow measurement devices, including the V-Cone differential pressure flowmeter. McCrometer has first-hand knowledge of the obstacles to bringing a new technology to the natural gas market. This paper explains how one new technology has been used successfully in custody transfer flow measurement applications even without “custody transfer approval”.
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Steam Custody Transfer - The oil field operator injects the steam into the ground to heat the heavy (API gravity 6-15 typically) oil. Once heated the oil can be retrieved via traditional pumping methods. The operator pays for the steam by the BTU at the negotiated point of custody transfer.
FPSO Vessel Flow Measurement
Liquid & Gas Flow Measurement for Oil/Gas FPSO Vessels - Marcus Davis -The ability to eliminate long required straight pipe runs for flow meter technologies while meeting necessary technical specifications reduces installation real estate and allows for flexible layouts while cutting overall pipe weight, material and installation costs. McCrometer’s uniquely designed differential pressure V-Cone® Flow Meter is now frequently utilised by the industry’s major FPSO Vessel builders and operators.
FPSO Flow Meter Fits Just Right - Space-Saving Flow Meter Gets Engineers Out Of Tight Spots In Offshore Applications: Ideal for Measuring Wet Gas, Condensate and Dirty or Abrasive Flows.
Injection System Flow Measurement
Water Alternating Gas Injection System Requires Compact Flow Measurement Solution - Nick Vos - The oil/gas process engineers initially considered using a differential pressure (dP) technology orifice plate flow meter, but there was a problem. The installation area for the meter was already crowded with equipment, and the orifice plate flow meter required a long pipe straight-run to ensure accurate measurement. There simply wasn’t enough room to accommodate the orifice plate flow meter. The flow specialist at McCrometer recommended installing a VCone® Flow Meter with its built-in flow condition technology, which reduces the typical pipe straight-runs required both upstream and downstream from the meter for accurate measurement.
LNG Flow Measurement
2.13 Self-Conditioning Flow Meter Solves Measurement Challenges for LNG Processing and Distribution - Nick Voss - The Challenge - Converting natural gas to its liquefied LNG state reduces its volume by 600 percent. This reduction in volume facilitates transport by ship, export and distribution. The natural gas is first cooled to -260◦F (-162.2◦C), which condenses the fluid into the liquefied state. Flow is then measured again several times during transportation, storage, regasification and distribution through pipelines to the end users. The liquefaction process takes place in hazardous, space-constrained facilities. LNG processing, transportation, storage and distribution require a flow meter that is rugged, dependable, simple to install and suitable for use in potentially explosive environments. Flow meter technologies with moving parts or those requiring complex installation, or frequent recalibration and other maintenance represent potential safety issues, accuracy problems and added operating costs that burden production and refinery operations.
Miscellaneous Oil and Gas Flow
Oil & Gas Industry: Hot Air Application in an Oil Refinery - Shell Refinery had the need to measure hot air in 2 locations with a low pressure drop. The problem was that the hot air was blown through square ducts with a dimension of 1400 x 502 mm and 1200 x 451 mm. There were was a split off from a larger duct in two legs and where the flowmeter was to be placed there was literally no straight pipe runs. The total straight section available was 1800 mm; for all ducts the same.
Subsea Flow Measurement
Subsea Flow Measurement - Nicholas Voss - With depths as deep as 10,000ft (3,000m) - Flow measurement in subsea oil and gas production systems represents a challenge. In addition to normal considerations for selecting a flow meter such as accuracy and repeatability, subsea module manufacturers face demanding space constraints and must plan for transportation and implementation on the ocean floor. There is only so much space available within subsea modules. The ability to eliminate the required straight pipe runs for flow meters while meeting or exceeding the necessary technical specifications reduces/shrinks installation real estate and allows for flexible layouts while cutting overall pipe weight, material, and installation costs.
Test Separator Gas Flow Measurement
2.13 V-Cone Meter - Gas Measurement for the Real World - Maron J. Dahlstrøm - This paper describes the performance of the V-Cone meters used for Embla test separator gas measurement. The advantages and disadvantages for use of this technology on the partially processed gas at an offshore platform is discussed. It has been shown in tests that the V-Cone meter functions well with wet gas conditions. The long term repeatability of the meter is documented. Also the low influence from upstream disturbance is confirmed. It is shown that calibration curve fit to ISO5167-1 based equations, can give dry gas accuracy inside the fiscal requirements for gas at Reynolds number above 1 million. The experience from Embla shows that the V-Cone meter tolerates rough operation: The V-Cone meter dimensions certified at six month intervals identifies no changes to the meter. Also the flow calibrations carried out at the same time intervals presents no significant changes, the results match close to the accuracy of the equipment used in the flow calibrations.
Test Separator Using Offshore Metering - Philip A. Lawrence - This paper highlights the advantages of using V-Cone Meters on Test Separators.
V-Cone Flowmeter Solves Test Separator Problems for the Oil & Gas Industry - In the gas metering section of a test separator, liquid “carry over” is a well-known problem, especially when new wells are put on stream. Occasionally, when the well stream ﬂow exceeds the capacity of the test separator, water, oil, agitated solids and other debris are carried over into the metering devices. As a result of this harsh treatment, oriﬁce and conventional turbine meters have sometimes been found buckled or damaged—even when relocated somewhere downstream of the process. A V-Cone ﬂowmeter provides outstanding performance without the long lengths of upstream or downstream pipe runs usually required by other types of ﬂowmeters. This requirement for reduced straight pipe run results in signiﬁcant space savings, especially on offshore platforms.
Wellhead Metering Using V-Cone® Technology - This paper describes the McCrometer V-cone D.P. meter as currently used by the Oil and Gas industry in the role of wellhead injection and allocation metering in on-shore, topside and sub-sea production applications.
Wet Gas Metering
V-Cone®, An Alternative to Orifice Meter in Wet Gas Applications - Stephen A. Ifft - This paper will discuss the use of the V-Cone differential pressure flowmeter to measure the flow of wet gas. Wet gas flow measurement is gaining considerable attention due to its importance in the oil and gas industry. Separator and well-head flow lines are two examples where wet gas can occur in a production system. Orifice plates have long been used for these applications. While orifice plates offer good measurement in clean gas applications, an alternative is needed that will provide better performance in the harsh environment of wet gas flow.
Wet Gas Metering with V-Cone - Dr. Richard Steven and Dr. RJW Peters - With the industrial requirement to meter wet gas flows increasing worldwide McCrometer has tested the performance of the single phase V-Cone meter (a Differential Pressure (DP) type meter) in wet gas flows in both the NEL and CEESI wet gas loops. These tests have shown how the V-Cone meter responds to different amounts of liquid entrained in a gas flow and have enabled correction factors to be developed.
Research Developments in Wet Gas Metering with V-Cone Meters - Philip A. Lawrence, and Richard Steven - This paper briefly summarises the V-Cone meter technology and then discusses the results of repeat wet gas flow tests at NEL in May 2003 (at nominally 15 and 60 Bar) for the 0.75 beta ratio V-Cone meter, to show the repeatability of the meter with wet gas flows and the reliability of the previously published wet gas flow correlation within the NEL parameter range.
Wet Gas Testing with V-Cone - This paper details a series of tests conducted on Wet Gas applications.
Industry: Saturated Steam - Steam measurement is always a
challenge, as the traditional Pitot Tubes and Orifices are of low accuracy, low
rangeability, plus the ID of the process tube is usually unknown and the
straight pipe requirements are difficult to meet. Steam is almost always a
non-homogenous fluid, with cavitation, shocks and other irregularities.
Chemical & Petrochemical Processing: Crude Oil Refining to Saleable Products Production of Petrochemicals - V-Cone flowmeters can be used in refineries and petrochemical plants to save physical space, reduce upstream and downstream pipe runs, and increase accuracies when used in areas where traditional forms of flow measurement were not possible.
Chemical Industry: Manufacture of Chemical Products Components from Air - Continuous/batch processes needed a method to measure flows of chemical components and products from skid mounted units installed at various types of industries worldwide. They were required to reduce space and weight, and increase accuracy.
Chemical Industry/Power Generation: Steam, Condensate and Feedwater Measurement - Condensate is a very difficult fluid to measure because it is never just water. Condensate contains steam bubbles which cause shocks and cavitation which typically destroy other types of flowmeters.
2.13 U.S. Navy Adopts V-Cone Flow Meter for EMALS Duty on Next-Generation Carriers - Nick Voss - Defense contractor General Atomics (GA) is developing the next generation of aircraft catapult launch systems for United States Navy’s new Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carriers. The Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System, or EMALS, utilizes a breakthrough linear motor technology instead of conventional steam pistons.The Challenge - Accelerating a fully loaded strike aircraft to its launch end speed using linear motor technology generates heat in both the power system and the motors, which must then be dissipated by a cooling system. The cooling water in the system needs to be actively monitored and controlled to ensure proper cooling of these systems, which requires an accurate and dependable flow meter. GA reviewed the available flow meter technologies on the market in terms of their measurement accuracy, dependability and installation space requirements.
Metals and Mining Industry
Metals & Mining Industry: Steel Mill Exhaust Gas
Measurement - Mefos “The Foundation for
Metallurgical Research” is a research company for the Swedish steel industry
which is one of the dominant industries in Sweden. In one of their projects
assigned to them it was important for to measure flow for efficiency and
environmental reasons. The flow meter was required to operate on hot exhaust gas
from the AOD furnace with some contaminants at a temperature ranging from + 300
- + 800 ° C in a pipe line of 1000mm.
V-Cone Flow Meters Solves Nuclear Lab Underwater Measurement Problem - Willem Smith - NRG Lab faced a problem when the old vortex flow meter was wearing out and they found that model was no longer in production. The Lab plant managers needed a new flow metering solution with specific capabilities, including, electronics with a long life, low maintenance costs and a technology that performs well underwater and can withstand the effects of nuclear radiation.
The Economic and Technical Justification for changing from a Nozzle Flow Meter to a V-Cone Flow Meter on the outlet of a Steam Recovery Boiler in a Paper Plant - A very large integrated Paper Plant desired to improve productivity of paper production utilizing the existing equipment. The technical paper describes the reasons why the Paper Plant considered the replacement of a flow meter on the steam outlet of a Recovery Boiler.
Pacific Klamath Energy Utilizes V-Cone Flow Meter
to Solve Problem in Co-Generation Plant - Bruce Willard -
Providing accurate and reliable steam flow measurement to the steam host is a very
important aspect in generating revenue for the co-generation facility. The existing
annubar flow measurement system could not measure the low end of the steam flow requirements without major changes to the
piping and purchasing a new annubar. To eliminate this problem, Klamath Pacific Energy contacted McCrometer and asked
them about the V-Cone Flow Meter, which relies on differential pressure (DP) technology.
It was then decided to replace the annubar system based on the expected accuracy of the V-Cone Flow Meter and its
space-saving installation features that required only minimal changes to the piping layout.
Advanced Flow Meter Technology To The Rescue: V-Cone Reduces Installation Costs For Aging Power Plant - Markku Metsarinne - Metso Power Oy, located in Finland, began a new project in 2002 to design and build a new flue gas treatment operation within the new power plant for client, Kotkan Energia Oy, located in Kotka, Finland. Metso Power had to design the flue gas treatment plant to fit into the section of the new plant, which was pre-determined by Kotkan Energia. The fact that the location of the flue gas treatment plant was selected in advance, added to the complexity of the project. It was necessary to fit the equipment into a limited space.
Use of V-Cone Fuel Flow Meter to Measure Coke Oven Gas & Natural Gas Flow in a Combined Heat and Power Plant - Ann McIver and Dr. R.J.W. Peters - This paper describes key aspects of the Citizens Thermal Energy district energy system in Indianapolis. It will present the requirements imposed, through the continuous emissions monitoring rules established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as delineated in 40 CFR 75. The reason for the choice of the V-Cone, which is not a fuel flow metering technology specifically addressed in the regulations, will be presented and the tests required by the EPA to enable the V-Cone to be accepted. The results of the flow tests in an independent laboratory before and after a period in service will be given.
Geothermal Steam Flow Measurement - This application involved measuring steam before it enters the turbine. Two measurements were required for each turbine, one on the high pressure side and one on the low pressure side.
Digester Gas Flow to Co-Gen Plant - This application was to measure the digester gas consumption of the power generation boilers. Measurement Challenge/Difficulty: Digester gas is usually corrosive and can be wet. It is difficult and impractical to measure with any meter other than the V-Cone. The short pipe run required for the V-Cone makes it extremely practical to install.
Exhaust Gas Flow Measurement - This application involves the Flow measurement of heavily contaminated gases in an energy experimental station.
Power Generation Industry: Exhaust Gas Flow Measurement - This application was measuring non-condensable gas into a Lo Cat scrubber before discharge to atmosphere. This is a compliance measurement. The considerable amount of H2S makes it a safety issue as well.
2.13 Honda Cars Philippines Ensures Quality Manufacturing with Advanced Gas Measurement Solution - Nick Voss - Providing accurate and reliable liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption data for Honda’s oven burners is necessary to ensure accurate production cost and billing as well. Unfortunately, the planned thermal flow metering system could not measure the low end of the LPG flow scale without major changes to the piping system and purchasing a new insert probe. With the plant’s piping space constraints a McCrometer V-Cone Flow Meter was recommended, which due to its compact configuration, required minimal changes to the existing piping system.
Water and Wastewater Industry
Smoothes City's Troubled Waters - An application
note for the water industry.
Water & Wastewater Industry: Digester Gas Measurement - Measure Digester Gas at a water treatment plant.
Natural Gas Measurement - Measure Natural Gas Flow to a Standby Generator
Reservoir Raw Water Measurement - Accurately measure raw water flow out of a reservoir outlet structure. A space length of 42” was available in a 42” line to insert a flow meter. Connection lines feeding into the main header were located 1/2, 3 and 5 pipeline diameters upstream from the meter and were inducing considerable turbulence into the flow approaching the meter.
Water Treatment Plant - Measure the effluent flow in a 4-inch line from a Water Treatment Plant high service pump with extremely limited straight piping available.
Water Well Measurement Effluent Measurement - Measure Flow from Water Wells in a Desert Community - Well water is very turbulent and is filled with sand and debris. The turbulence is significant due to the typically short pipe runs. The sand and debris cause damage to the flow elements and create a need for lots of costly field maintenance. The customer was experiencing significant maintenance problems with the mechanical meters on the wells. These problems were caused by a combination of turbulence and short pipe runs, sand and debris.
Industry: High-Pressure Helium Measurement
- High pressure Helium custody transfer point - Remote measurement requires high
turndowns. Traditional orifice measurement requires three meter runs to cover the intended range of operation.
- High pressure Helium custody transfer point - Remote measurement requires high
Analytical Instruments Industry: Air Flow Measurement - Precisely Monitor Plant Air Flow.
Food & Beverage Industry: Grain Alcohol Measurement - Alcohol (grain) is difficult to measure due to its solvent characteristics (It plays havoc with turbine bearings). Alcohol also has a relatively low vapor pressure making traditional differential pressure measurement over the specified range difficult. This was an existing plant with minimal straight pipe available for proper flow measurement.
Food & Beverage Industry: Steam & Specialty Gases
Measurement in Breweries - Steam being used
in breweries had always been overlooked as a source or “reusable” or
“capturable” energy. Averaging Pitot tubes typically used were not only
inaccurate, but still required costly pipe runs along with very regular and
expensive maintenance and replacement. In generating steam, thermal mass meters
had been used but presented some of the same problems. Brewers looking to
improve their efficiencies needed a new method to obtain and measure a thermal
mass balance around the plant for steam generation and usage.
Gas/Steam Turbine Manufacturing: Gas Flow Measurement
- Gas in Serpentine Piping System - A solution to a measure
gas during the commissioning of gas turbines where almost no strait pipe runs
HVAC/Institutional Facility: Chilled Water & Steam
Measurement - Measurement of Chilled Water & Steam
- In most instances the use of V-Cones associated with chillers for chilled
water in large institutional users is a matter of space, accuracy, and turndown.
The V-Cone needs very little upstream and downstream piping requirements,
allowing it to be used in spaces where other meters cannot be used, or to
replace existing flowmeters that never proved accurate because of space
limitations. In many large universities and other facilities, such as hospitals
and airports, across the U.S., the reason for initial interest and subsequent
purchases of V-Cones to measure Chilled Water was to fit within the confines of
the existing and new buildings that were being used to house the chillers.
Additionally, the second most important reason was the delivered accuracy. In
the past, most usage had been ignored, but with the rising costs associated with
cooling, each individual building must be accountable for individual use.
V-Cone Coke Oven Gas Case Study - Flow monitoring of coke-oven gas is difficult due to solids build up on interior surfaces. Heavy accumulation often renders venturis, orifice and segmental orifice plates incapable of accurate flow measurement. In addition, the pressure-sensing ports of venturi or orifice plate flowmeters become plugged, making the readings of these primary differential pressure devices difficult, if not impossible. A 150mm diameter V-cone Differential Pressure Flowmeter with a full-scale range of 110mm water column was selected for evaluation by Svenskt Stal Oxelosund. Mr. Lekberg, Instrument Engineer for SSAB, was responsible for the installation and evaluation of the V-cone. After one month of continuous flow, Mr. Lekberg reported, “We had the meter installed for one month and then inspected it together with ANSKO (the local McCrometer representative), and to our surprise, the meter was clean and had no obvious wear on the cone. The performance of the meter was also excellent and to our full satisfaction”.
Flow Meter Research for APS Beam-Lines - Jeff T. Collins & Brian Batzka - Many critical APS beam-line components, such as the photon shutters and fixed masks, utilise porous media for heat transfer enhancement and consequently rely on steady operation at design flow rates to ensure that the proper levels of heat transfer enhancement are maintained. it is therefore necessary to ensure that the flow metering system, which the component is interlocked on, has a high degree of reliability.
V-Cone Primary Element Specification
V-Cone Primary Element Specification for Air Applications
V-Cone Primary Element Specification for Gas Applications
V-Cone Primary Element Specification for Steam Applications
V-Cone Primary Element Specification for Water Applications
Differential Pressure Flowmeter Specification (non-proprietary)
Further published articles and independant reports are available on the McCrometer website.