ICEnews August 2012
All "that's cool" in Instrumentation and Control Engineering - "It's Purely Technical" - For Engineers by Engineers!
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Welcome to the New Look "It's Purely Technical" August 2012 issue of ICEnews, the Instrumentation, and Control Engineering news source. ICEnews is a compendium of useful information which we endeavour to issue quarterly.
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Bee Research Breakthrough Might Lead to Artificial Vision - An international research breakthrough with bees means machines might soon be able to see almost as well as humans.
World’s Fastest Microwave Wireless Link - A point-to-point microwave wireless transmission link with the highest physical-layer data rate ever achieved, 10 Gigabits per second (Gbit/s) in each direction, has been demonstrated by Australia’s national research agency, the Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation, CSIRO.
Leap Second to be Added - A leap second was introduced on 30 June 2012 following a decision made by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) earlier this year. This could potentially be one of the last ever leap seconds added, as a decision may be made in the next few years to abolish the practice. Leap seconds are added to Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) to keep the time scale from atomic clocks within one second of that determined by the rotation of the Earth. The time scale produced by atomic clocks is much more stable and reliable than that based on the Earth's rotation, and without leap second adjustments the two would diverge by ever increasing amounts.
Something for Automation History Fans...Atomic clock film from the 1950s - A film has come to light that was produced by the NPL Film Unit in the 1950s. The film explains the principles behind the first accurate atomic clock, designed by Louis Essen and built at NPL in 1955.
ICEbooks – Useful Books, Software and New Releases related to Instrumentation and Control
Need Some Technical “know-how”? ICEweb has a page which details a selection of excellent Instrumentation, Automation, Control, Electrical, Electronic and Information Technology books from IDC Technologies. These can be purchased from ICEweb . Also detailed are other links to more useful references.
What’s in your pocket? Why not fill your pocket with an IDC pocket guide. Their six Engineering Pocket Guides are bursting with over 500 pages of valuable information. The six titles include: Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering, Data Communications, Formulae and Conversions, Electronic Engineering and Industrial Automation. Whether you are interested in just the one title or if you need the whole set send an email to email@example.com .
NFPA 13: Installation of Sprinkler Systems and Handbook Set, 2010 Edition - Everything you need is here! The 2010 NFPA 13 puts new rules within reach. In the field or at your desk, the 2010 NFPA 13 delivers the latest rules for special storage arrangements based on fire testing and research...provisions that correlate with SEI/ASCE 7...combined rules for all Control Mode Specific Application (CMSA) equipment...and other significant changes. When tough questions come up, the Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook clarifies requirements and provides solutions. No other sprinkler reference has it all! The Handbook features the complete text of the 2010 NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems and exclusive commentary that clarifies NFPA 13's intent and rationale -- including advice on applying major changes. Extra photos and graphics depict scenarios and equipment, such as assemblies for three new special storage arrangements covered in the expanded Chapter 20. Three exclusive Supplements explore emerging sprinkler research and reports on the latest U.S. and international experience. A special web address links you to more information, such as a previous Supplement on MIC prevention and treatment. This Handbook can be accessed in read only mode from the web once you register!
NFPA 20: Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, 2010 Edition - Head off system failure and malfunctions with the 2010 edition of NFPA 20: Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, featuring the latest requirements for installing all types of pumps including centrifugal, vertical shaft turbine-type, and positive displacement. This 2010 edition is your complete source for comprehensive guidance on stationary fire pumps including Fire pump design, Electrical and mechanical construction, Acceptance testing, Operation. Introducing new Chapter 5 on high-rise pump installations. Some of the most complex fire pump jobs are in high-rises, and the 2010 NFPA 20 includes an all-new Chapter 5 on high-rise buildings, with special provisions based on design practices, risk exposure, and fire fighter operations.
NFPA 25: Water-Based Fire Protection Systems Handbook, 2008 Edition - Take the direct route to NFPA 25 compliance. The 2008 NFPA 25 Handbook provides expert support to keep water-based systems in top condition. Getting up-to-speed on a new Standard edition can be time-consuming. Streamline your efforts, avoid confusion, and eliminate mistakes with the complete guidance only available in the 2008 NFPA 25: Water-Based Fire Protection Systems Handbook. This Standard companion is your key to applying new and revised rules correctly! The NFPA 25 Handbook's unique mix of requirements plus advice fully prepare you to work confidently with updated criteria for performance-based testing, impairment procedures, main drain tests, dry-pipe system testing, and more. No other source offers more authoritative guidance to help you pass inspections and make sure facilities are protected:
ISA Releases Third Edition of McMillan’s Popular Tuning Pocket Guide - Every practicing instrument, process and process control engineer will want to have this practical and to-the-point pocket guide on good tuning. Good Tuning: A Pocket Guide, Third Edition is a portable, concise summary of all the practical considerations for tuning loops. It includes step-by-step descriptions of the three best field-proven tuning procedures, a table of typical tuning settings, a summary of valve performance problems, logic diagrams for troubleshooting and more than 70 “rules of thumb.” Wherever you have data and tuning access, you can estimate the settings for configuring new loops to review and improve the tuning of existing loops.
ARC Advisory Group: Control In The Field Enhances Process Integrity - In the white paper, titled "The Business Value Proposition of Control in the Field," ARC describes the incorporation of a function block structure and other supporting functions in Foundation fieldbus providing a complete automation infrastructure for operational excellence. Embedded control functionality in Foundation devices is one of the key enablers for achieving high availability control and a stepping-stone towards single-loop integrity - from the Fieldbus Foundation.
Fieldbus Foundation Updates Technical Specifications for Remote Operations Management - The Fieldbus Foundation have announced that an updated version of its Foundation technical specifications is now available for immediate implementation. The latest release addresses key elements of Foundation for Remote Operations Management (ROM) technology, which enables manufacturers to begin developing Foundation for ROM devices. Specifications have been added for transducer blocks for both wired and WirelessHART® devices.The Fieldbus Foundation’s Foundation for ROM solution offers a unified digital infrastructure for asset management in a wide range of remote applications, from oil and gas pipelines to tank farms and offshore platforms, and even OEM skid mounted equipment. The technology enables fieldbus connectivity to remote I/O and the leading industrial wireless protocols, including WirelessHART and ISA100.11a. It provides an interface to these wireless technologies and uses Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) and function blocks to ensure interoperability with Foundation for ROM devices. The Remote I/O (RIO) portion of the specification was released in April of last year and allows for connectivity of large point count remote I/O to Foundation fieldbus. The foundation is now pleased to launch the HART and WirelessHART specification for ROM.
Understanding the Use Case for Control in the Field - Control in the field vs. control in the host: Foundation fieldbus technology allows for both, so how do you choose? A new study offers suggestions. If you are a Foundation fieldbus user, you know that it supports control in the field (CIF), which allows a sensor and actuator to form its own self-regulating PID loop, independent of the host control system. While the effectiveness of the approach is well documented, what user cases make it the most compelling for application? A new study has been completed by Industrial Systems and Control, an engineering consulting group in Glasgow, Scotland, that examines how CIF operates and where it is likely to offer the greatest advantages over traditional host-based process control. In the video Dr. Andy Clegg explains the parameters of the study, and the basic findings. His report discusses how his team carried out the independent evaluation, and the circumstances under which the high determinism of CIF can outperform conventional loops driven by a PLC or DCS - - from Control Engineering.
FOUNDATION for Remote Operations Management - One of the fastest growing segments in the world of process automation is remote operations management. As the name implies, remote operations refers to the management of automation assets that are located in or are dispersed throughout remote geographic locations where it is difficult or impossible to send personnel. This is not limited to remote offshore oil platforms and oil and gas pipelines. It can also include tank farms and terminals, water and wastewater treatment facilities, and any industry or application that requires remote access to automation assets
Video - The Unveiling of FOUNDATION for Remote Operations Management - The Fieldbus Foundation has unveiled its Foundation for Remote Operations Management (ROM) solution, a new technology initiative intended to develop a unified digital infrastructure for asset management in remote applications such as tank farms, terminals, pipelines, offshore platforms, and even OEM equipment skids. The technology enables fieldbus connectivity to remote I/O and the leading industrial wireless protocols, including WirelessHART and ISA 100.11a. It provides an interface to these wireless technologies and uses Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL) and function blocks to ensure interoperability with Foundation for ROM devices - from Control Engineering.
More PROFINET Videos - Sometimes one minute is not enough to find out about PROFINET. For those occasions, try some more detailed videos from the PROFI Interface Center, featuring Hunter Harrington.
MinutePROFINET YouTube Channel - A new YouTube channel has been created by PI North America called MinutePROFINET. It describes features of PROFINET through short ~60 sec videos. As the series progresses, expect more technical aspects of the technology to be helpfully explained. Check out the first two, and subscribe: click here.
Building Automation Migrates towards Ethernet and Wireless - James Hunt - Buildings are becoming more automated, but what kind of communication and control networks are needed? As building electrical installations gain greater sophistication, there is a corresponding growing requirement for extensive functional diversity, convenience and efficient operation of the increasingly large number of digital products that the average building now contains. This article reports on building automation requirements, and networking techniques used to carry out energy management and control tasks - from the Industrial Ethernet Book.
Field Device Networking: Extending Interoperability Beyond Devices -Larry O’Brien - Testing field devices may not be enough. Most interoperability problems happen when a device tries to communicate with a host system, but that can be addressed. As a company that is responsible for developing and maintaining communication protocols that are used by a large number of equipment manufacturers and end users, interoperability is one of our greatest concerns. Interoperability in this context is the idea that equipment from a variety of manufacturers can function in the same system without having to be coaxed or forced in the form of reconfiguration or other changes. A pressure sensor from company A should function on the same fieldbus segment as another unit from company D. To facilitate that objective, our organization, like other standards bodies, specifies how this communication takes place - from Control Engineering and the Fieldbus Foundation.
Why 'Industrial Ethernet' is more than just 'Industrial' + 'Ethernet' - Justin Nga - The increasing use of digital equipment in industrial environments coupled with increased integration and data bandwidth requirements has led to growing adoption of Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) for communication in place of older serial-based communication systems. However, simply selecting ruggedised versions of Ethernet equipment originally designed for conventional IT environments will not create a true Industrial Ethernet network - from Belden and PACE.
Media Redundancy Concepts - High Availability in Industrial Ethernet - The general idea of media redundancy and redundant paths is almost as old as the use of Ethernet for industrial communications, and so is the dilemma that – by definition – Ethernet technology’s broadcast nature does not permit physical loops and therefore effectively forbids redundant communications paths. However, fault tolerance, which necessitates the use of redundant structures, is a vital basic requirement of very many automation systems. This means that the use of Ethernet for automation technology applications calls for protocols that are able to resolve the physical loops generated by the introduction of redundant pathways. To facilitate the use of redundant communications structures in office environments, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) specified the spanning tree protocol (STP), which was published in the 802.1D 1990 standard. For the first time this enabled all Ethernet switches to employ an algorithm to facilitate interconnected network structures, albeit with switchover times of the order of many tens of seconds. Further protocols based on the underlying STP mechanisms were subsequently developed, and these were better tailored to the specific requirements of an industrial environment, in particular with markedly reduced switchover times. This white paper will give you an overview of the current state of the technology and its solutions and also sketch a number of specific applications - from Belden.
New Fieldbus Wiring Hubs Help Reduce Network Costs - MTL Instruments has released the new F300 Series of Megablock wiring hubs for fieldbus applications. The Megablock is designed for general purpose, Zone 2 and Division 2 hazardous area applications where the high energy trunk can be powered by a wide range of fieldbus power supplies and the ability to conduct live maintenance - such as replacement of field devices in hazardous areas is desirable. Live connection and disconnection of fieldbus spurs without a gas clearance certificate is allowed with Ex ic and non-incendive field devices but where live-working of the spurs is not required, Ex d (flameproof) or Ex nA (normally non-sparking) field devices may be selected. The new F300 Series features a pluggable Trunk In/Out connector allowing replacement of a Megablock without breaking the trunk connection to other devices on the fieldbus segment. The compact F97 terminator may be mounted in the Trunk out connection to provide termination when the Megablock is located at the end of the fieldbus segment. It can be removed when the segment is extended, thus ensuring correct termination. Megablocks minimize hand wiring and allow individual devices to be added to and removed from the segment without disrupting network communication. The pluggable connectors are screw secured ensuring reliable connections even in high vibration environments. Attention to detail includes the +/S/- fieldbus connections to prevent intermittent connection to an adjacent terminal causing fieldbus failure. A green power LED on each unit indicates whether at least 10V of DC power is present and pluggable surge protection components for the fieldbus trunk and individual spurs are available as an option, reducing the installed cost of providing surge protection on fieldbus networks.
Bridging the Intrinsically-Safe Fieldbus Disconnect - MooreHawke, a division of Moore Industries has released a new white paper highlighting the various methods of connecting fieldbus devices in hazardous areas without compromising safety. This paper presents an overview of different ways to safely implement PROFIBUS PA or FOUNDATION fieldbus H1™ networks in hazardous areas while maintaining cost control and the inherent advantages of fieldbus. It highlights different methods of designing and installing fieldbus in hazardous areas including Entity, FISCO and High-Powered Trunk with field barriers. Also explored is the High Power Intrinsically-Safe Trunk concept pioneered by MooreHawke. This method allows users to get up to 350mA of I.S. power into a hazardous area by utilizing a patented split-architecture design. Readers of the white paper will have a better understanding of the complexities of Intrinsically-Safe fieldbus designs along with the history of innovations that have led to the latest industry advances. The white paper also includes a full-page chart highlighting key data points and installation advantages unique to each method.
Foundation Fieldbus, Fourth Edition - Ian Verhappen and Augusto Pereira
The fourth edition of Foundation Fieldbus significantly expands the
subject matter of the earlier editions of this popular book not only to
help you stay current with this evolving technology but to also enhance
your understanding of Fieldbus. This edition provides in-depth coverage
on Fieldbus communications and configuration, including calculation of
macrocycle for Control-In-Field and in the Host system and how the
different forms of communication on the H1 network work with each other
to make Control-In-Field possible, including the use of these different
methods to optimize network bandwidth.
Call for Papers - If you have an upcoming conference and are calling for papers please contact us.
|CALL FOR PAPERS
Flow Measurement & Control Forum
Perth, Australia - 28th & 29th November 2012
Are you an engineering professional working with the measurement and control of flow? IDC are looking for a number of speakers to submit an abstract and present their papers at the upcoming Flow Measurement & Control Forum in Perth.
Abstracts due: Friday August 3rd - Get the full details.
IDC have a range of E-Learning courses Covering Data Communications, Electrical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Instrumentation, Mechanical Engineering and Project Management .
Training and Workshop Schedules
IDC have a huge range of workshops and training courses in Australia and USA.
Courses! - The Engineering Institute of Technology, in
conjunction with IDC Technologies will be running regular hour workshops
covering basics, troubleshooting, new developments and much more
15 August- Nuts and Bolts of Energy Efficiency, Design and Engineering - The basics of energy efficiency and the nuts and bolts in saving dollars by finding the right solution to your needs.
12 September - Nuts and Bolts and Troubleshooting of AC Electrical Motors and Drives - The basic tools in troubleshooting motors and drives confidently and effectively.
10 October - Nuts and Bolts of Data Acquisition - Fundamental principles of data acquisition ranging from PC-based systems to stand alone loggers.
7 November - Nuts and Bolts of Flow Measurement - The essentials of flow measurement and troubleshooting your next flow system.
5 December - Nuts and Bolts of Pumps - The basics followed by some troubleshooting tips with your next pump installation.
Downloads of slides from past technical courses
A really great website for the latest news is the Read-Out Instrumentation Signpost.Control Engineering have a great range of newsletters covering;
Are you into Hydraulics? Brendon Casey's Inside Hydraulics Newsletter contains loads of technical tips and money saving techniques.
Automation World offers some electronic newsletters of interest including;
The Flow Control Network has a excellent newsletter for flow "buffs".
Jim Pinto's Website has lots of great content pertaining to Automation.
Looking for some Technical Information on Control, Electrical Instrumentation, Fire & Gas, Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) and many other subjects?
Search the vast ICEweb Free Technical Engineering Library for information on Control, Fire & Gas Systems, Electrical, Instrumentation and Safety Instrumented Systems.
ICEweb has developed the following pages thanks to our
Just click on the title header to go to ICEweb's super pages on each of the following subjects.
pH Sensors: Know whether to Calibrate the Sensor, Clean the Sensor, Perform a Calibration Check or ...? - Fred Kohlmann - This paper addresses knowing when to do a pH sensor calibration versus a calibration check, how to properly clean a pH sensor, how to perform a pH sensor calibration and a decision tree for step by step guidance - from the ISA and Endress+Hauser.
Theory of pH Measurement - pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a water solution. The acidity or alkalinity of a water solution is determined by the relative number of hydrogen ions (H+) or hydroxyl ions (OH-) present. Acidic solutions have a higher relative number of hydrogen ions, while alkaline (also called basic) solutions have a higher relative number of hydroxyl ions. Acids are substances which either dissociate (split apart) to release hydrogen ions or react with water to form hydrogen ions. Bases are substances that dissociate to release hydroxyl ions or react with water to form hydroxyl ions - from Emerson Process Management.
Smart pH loops for Plug-n-Play Installation Reduce Calibration Time -New technology enhances pH sensors usage because of the Smart software that's implemented in advanced pH sensors and instruments. Never before has it been so easy to calibrate, plug-n-play, and evaluate pH monitoring. Before the Smart technology emerged, the only way to calibrate the pH sensor was to carry all of the calibration equipment into the field. In many facilities, this meant carrying at least two buffer solution bottles, two beakers and one rinse bottle to the various installation sites. Then, the calibration was done on-site at a location closest to the sensor installation. So come rain or shine, sleet or snow, hot or cold weather conditions, the technician had to maintain the sensor in even the worst environmental conditions.Smart technology changes all that. Smart pH sensors have a memory which holds calibration information, so there is no need to carry equipment to field - from Emerson Process Management and PACE.
Polarographic Oxygen Measurement For Cost-efficient, In-situ Operation - For the measurement of oxygen in continuous process analysis, several technologies are available. Because they differ widely in terms of application coverage, field performance and ease of use, the right technology has to be carefully chosen. In this white paper, we review the possibilities offered by measurement systems based on polarographic sensing technology - from Mettler-Toledo AG Process Analytics
Analyser Sample Systems
Gas Sampler Applications - This presentation from Welker Engineering gives
an overview of Sampling Systems for the hot topic of Shale Gas Development.
NeSSI Keeps Chipping Away - The Plucky Sampling Sensor Initiative and Its Advocates Keep On Encouraging Users to Gain the Many Benefits That Its Standardized Hardware, Communications and Microanalytic Specifications Can Bring to Process Analytical Systems -Launched in 2000 by the Center for Process Analytical Chemistry (www.CPAC.Washington.edu) at the University of Washington, Seattle, NeSSI's Generation I specification for its modular, compact, mechanical substrate and other hardware evolved from the ISA SP 76 standard. Next, CPAC and NeSSI's supporters released its Generation II specification for automation and communications in 2004 and more recently, its Generation III specification for microanalytical devices, which is NeSSI's ultimate goal - from Control Global.
ICEweb's Burner Management page has been extensively upgraded with the addition of 8 technical papers and - new sections, so if you need more information on BMS just go to this page for fantastic technical information.!
Building a Safe Reliable Burner Management System - A new era is dawning for burner management systems (BMS). Thanks to changing and broadening regulatory standards, the door has opened to embrace the Safety-PLC based BMS solution—an approach that not only allows a manufacturing plant to include safety in one complete, integrated automation solution but also reap a multitude of benefits ranging from reduced costs and design time to improved safety and performance - from Siemens.
Burner Management Specification Tutorial Webcast - Learn how to properly specify a PLC–based burner management system (BMS) compliant to today's industry safety standards (NFPA, API, ISA) as Siemens' Certified Functional Safety Expert Charles Fialkowski and Control Global's Editor in Chief Walt Boyes discuss what’s new and relevant.
Specification of Safety-Integrated Burner Management Systems - Burner Management Systems (BMS) are one of the most widespread process safety applications. Historically, there has not been much guidance on the use of automation systems for BMS, and industry standards left much to interpretation; this changed with the release of International Society for Automation’s (ISA) technical report ISA-TR84.00.05-2010, Guidance on the Identification of Safety Instrumented Functions (SIF) in Burner Management Systems (BMS). Those with an understanding of the basic requirements of ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 and other good engineering practices applicable to BMS are the audience for this report - from totallyintegratedautomation.com.
How Do you Identify the Correct Tray Cables for your Next Application? - The term tray cable is being heard everywhere but what exactly is a tray cable and what are its benefits? This educational paper from Turck will (a) Define what a tray cable is (b) Describe the different types of tray cables and (c) Provide uses and standards for each type of tray cable.
Choosing the Right Cable for your Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) System - Brian Shuman - Like many engineering solutions, VFDs present not only benefits, but drawbacks as well. For example, the same fast switching rate of the transistors inside a pulse width modulated VFD that can accommodate an abrupt speed change in a motor (and offer precise control of processes) is also capable of generating unwanted noise in the drive system cable and in the drive itself. Electrical energy flowing in the cable contains frequencies as high as 30 megahertz. If this radio frequency energy is not contained within the cable, it can radiate out to interfere with the proper operation of nearby electronic equipment, less than robust, or commercial-grade Ethernet systems, and simple instrumentation wires even circuits that have absolutely nothing to do with the VFD system itself - from Belden.
Low Smoke IEC compliant Non Halogen Cables Provide Maximum Safety and Assurance - Awareness of the impact of smoke and harmful gases emitted during a fire has led to a growing demand for an alternative to the more traditional plastic halogenated cable constructions. PVC has long been used as an appropriate cable insulation and jacketing material with a high degree of flame-retardancy. However, in the event of a fire this will generate dense black smoke, with toxic and corrosive gases that can cause fatality and destruction. This fatality and destruction is attributable to the significant amounts of halogens, namely chlorine, found in PVC based compounds. On combustion, lethal gas is released, which on contact with moisture produces copious amounts of hydrochloric acid. Particularly hazardous in areas of minimal ventilation and restricted escape, the dense black smoke impairs visibility and means of escape, equipment will be damaged by the corrosive gases whilst the effects of inhalation of toxic gases can be fatal. Flame retardancy is important but so is the choice of a cable that emits smoke in very low levels and more importantly – without harmful corrosive and toxic gases. Despite stricter legislation and a more responsible attitude, lives and equipment are still put at risk due to the use of halogenated cables or cables that scarcely meet recommended industry standards - from Beldon.
, Choke Papers and Applications, Subsea Choke Valves, Choke Control Systems and some great links to technical papers.
Well Heads, Chokes and SSSVs - Chokes hold a backpressure on a flowing well to make better use of the gas for natural gas lift and to control the bottomhole pressure for recovery reasons. In vertical pipe flow, the gas expands rapidly with decreasing hydrostatic head and the liquid moves in slugs through the tubing. The potential gas lift energy is rapidly lost and liquids fall back and begin to accumulate over the perforations. Accumulating liquids hold a back pressure on the formation. If enough liquids accumulate, the well may "die" and quit flowing. A choke holds back pressure by restricting the flow opening at the well head. Back pressure restricts the uncontrolled expansion and rise of the gas and thus helps keep the gas dispersed in the liquids on the way up the tubing - from George E King Consulting Inc.
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Using Alarm Suppression - Effective Alarm Systems Improve Operations - Charlie Fialkowki - One of the signs of an effective alarm system is that it presents alarms to the operator only when they are relevant and require their response (attention). This means the alarm system is able to track the state of the process in order to know when to present the alarm and when to suppress it. Transient plant conditions, use of different feedstocks, and unplanned process upsets make this a challenge for many process applications. Modern systems provide a powerful and easy-to-configure capability for suppressing alarms dynamically based on the state of the process and/or equipment (called automatic alarm hiding). It can be used, for example, to suppress alarms when equipment is out of service or in response to a compressor trip (which would otherwise lead to an alarm flood). Overloading the operator with stale (irrelevant) alarms or alarm floods can lead to increased operator stress, missed alarms, operator error, production losses, or worse. This article discusses how to implement designed alarm suppression (a form of advanced alarming) following the best practices and recommendations of the ISA standard ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009, Management of Alarm Systems for the Process Industries, as well as EEMUA 191, Alarm Systems: A Guide to Design, Management, and Procurement, and NAMUR NA 102, Alarm Management for Process Control Industries.
Design to Humans: Lessons in HMI - Establishing a common language is often the first step to master a domain. This is especially true in the area of human-machine interface (HMI) design. HMI is the means by which a user operates a machine, system, or process (via hardwired panels or a computerized console). It also encompasses decision-support devices, such as operating procedures. Bandwidth availability from the modern HMI hardware and software has grown exponentially over the last few decades, and experts agree current Internet and web technologies cannot yet provide what most existing HMI users need: high data rates, high animation capability, and sub-second screen changes. Since humans cannot absorb information at the same rate as HMI bandwidth, it is important to design HMIs that better support the operator. In the petrochemical industry in U.S. alone, we estimate inadequacies in the means to deal with abnormal situations (including HMIs used to identify, diagnose, and deal with those situations) cost between $10 billion-$20 billion to the industry each year - from ISA and InTech.
Backup for Critical Processes - Stephen L. Arnold - In many industries, there are processes so critical that extraordinary methods must be taken to ensure that those processes are not halted or even stalled. To facilitate this, end users in many industries implement hot standby, or redundant systems. While it might not be practical for end users to implement a hot standby solution with a very expensive distributed control system (DCS), many end users, consulting engineers, system integrators, and others are now learning that PLC hot standby solutions can offer high availability in a more cost effective hardware and software combination. Hot standby means having two sets of process controls operating simultaneously, with the contingent or back-up system able to assume control of the process immediately if the main system falters or fails. The critical function of hot standby is to prevent an unanticipated process interruption that could result in lost production time, equipment damage, and lost raw materials - From Control Engineering.
AVEVA Electrical offers
market up to 30% man-hour savings
Sustainable Energy Management - Putting Information
Assets to Work in the Process Industries - This paper outlines the
challenges facing process plant operators in implementing effective
Energy Management strategies. It describes how these challenges may be
overcome through the use of currently available Information Management
technologies supported by a comprehensive, Service-Oriented Architecture
(SOA). Information Management technology can overcome the technical
barriers to effective Energy Management and provide the means to harness
an enterprise’s extensive, but often under-exploited, information
assets. Such capability supports the key elements of a sustainable,
long-term Energy Management programme: best practice methodology and an
integrated framework to address its information requirements. Rather
than being just a short-term initiative with a single objective, this
type of programme constitutes a substantial step on the road to
implementing a comprehensive Operations Integrity Management strategy to
deliver enterprise-wide business benefits. An Energy Information
Management strategy can thus lead to more extensive and sustained
optimisation of all aspects of asset operation. To
download AVEVA’s paper on Sustainable Energy Management
Top Ten Instrumentation Headaches - AVEVA spoke to instrumentation and control experts across the industry and identified no less than ten key areas where other vendors’ instrumentation design technologies fail to meet engineers’ and designers’ requirements. These are the top ten headaches that the engineers and designers face on a daily basis. The good news is that companies can avoid these headaches entirely by deploying the ‘visual engineering’ approach at the heart of AVEVA’s field-proven instrumentation solution. Register to read the full paper here.
A Shocking Waste of Money - Eight Reasons Why Electrical Design Costs More Than it Should - Electrical engineering and design is one of the most complex and demanding challenges facing EPCs and shipbuilders, in new builds, in-plant projects, and marine refit. Recent capital expenditure on electrical engineering and design has been estimated to reach $3 billion in the hydrocarbon plant industry alone. But should we be shocked by this figure? Surely such a complex discipline necessarily comes with a high price tag? Expense is inevitable, certainly. But wastefulness is unforgivable. Unfortunately, the technology used to plan and design electrical systems, just like that used to design instrumentation and control systems, is often just that – wasteful. Because it has been developed with little regard for engineers’ and designers’ natural working methods, it results in cumbersome and error-prone methods of handling data, and prevents users from making effective technical use of the natural synergies that exist between many activities. Register to read the full paper here
AVEVA releases the Latest and most Powerful Version of AVEVA Instrumentation - AVEVA has announced that AVEVA Instrumentation 12.1, an enhanced version of its highly successful and market leading instrumentation and control engineering software is available. AVEVA Instrumentation 12.1, the most powerful instrumentation application on the market and one of AVEVA’s fastest growing products, is available for both plant and marine environments. Like AVEVA’s recently launched brand new application AVEVA Electrical, it has been designed and tested in close collaboration with AVEVA customers who have demonstrated up to a 30% man-hour savings with the new product.“AVEVA Instrumentation has proven to be a highly successful engineering product for AVEVA”, commented Bruce Douglas, Senior Vice President- Marketing & Product Strategy, AVEVA. “AVEVA Instrumentation integrates with AVEVA Electrical, which is a compelling piece of additional functionality to this platform. No other supplier provides such close synchronisation between these two important disciplines enabling true integration. “We are excited to be able to provide the plant and marine markets with two mission-critical applications that are so tightly integrated and offer our customers such compelling quality improvements and efficiency savings.” AVEVA Instrumentation can be implemented stand-alone, integrated as part of AVEVA’s Integrated & Engineering Design approach or with other third party software. New functionality includes an improved intuitive and easy to use interface, with enhanced graphical engineering capabilities. This allows tabular data such as component references to be represented at the click of a button, dramatically increasing productivity. To learn more visit www.aveva.com/aveva_instrumentation.
AVEVA – the world's leading engineering software provider, whose vision and commitment have completely redefined the plant, power and marine industries.
Find out more about AVEVA Instrumentation and other products here.
Old Fashioned Engineering Dodges Traps - Jan Jekielek - Today’s perpetually improving technology brings new equipment, systems, solutions, and semantics. It also brings new dramatic challenges. Project requirements become greater and the level of control systems project complexity, and costs increase. With all this to keep track of, it is important to keep an eye out for myths and traps in the field and get on with the business of good old-fashioned control systems engineering. Old-fashioned control systems engineering means more than a nostalgic connotation of the good old times when job estimates were based on the supervisor’s assessment on how many people were needed for the project. It also means cultivating the principle of one-page schedules and cost updates and on-the-dot, minimized meetings, all of that allowing for maximizing the value of the project outcome. Full recognition and rejection of all kinds of humbug, regardless of the source, is one of the most distracting and de-motivating factors for any group of productive people.
Developing a Control Logic Specification - Michael Whitt -The primary purpose of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is to provide useful information to an operator in a timely, pertinent fashion. Sometimes, this means the data needs to display over time in a trend display or chart. Sometimes, the instantaneous (real-time) value of the data needs to be on display too. A well-written control specification will describe how the systems integrator should manipulate the data values as it permeates the control system - from ISA and InTech.
Voltage Design & Installations Forum
For Mining, Oil & Gas, Industrial Plants & Utilities
Perth, Australia - 17th & 18th October 2012 - This forum is based around the AS 2067-2008 HV standard which provides minimum requirements for the design and installation of high voltages above 1kV (ac) so as to provide safe functioning in operation. This topic will be of special interest to the electrical engineering community of Australia, as regulators are demanding continual improvement in safety outcomes in this area.
The forum will provide you with hard-hitting and useful electrical engineering know-how which you can apply directly in your workplace. We have selected speakers who can present technical papers on a wide variety of industry topics to ensure that you return to your workplaces with the skills needed to apply best practice when dealing with your next HV electrical installation.
Click here to download the brochure
Click here to register online
High-End Intelligent Emergency Valve Applications - Jari Kirmanen - Process facilities today are facing growing challenges to meet requirements with respect to the environment, health and safety of the plant personnel while maximizing product output and quality. With increasing energy prices, process plants must further develop their processes and maximize the yield of valuable products in an energy-efficient way. Plant run-time targets are increasing, which also set more challenges on equipment reliability and safety. De-pressurizing or pressure protection, as well as burner emergency shut-off being part of the safety integrity system, is a part of the process industry’s backbone defence against a threat to personnel and equipment. Intelligent partial-stroke devices capable of diagnosing emergency valve condition are more commonly utilized in the hydrocarbon industry. General requirements and challenges together with the benefits of using emergency valves equipped with intelligent partial-stroke devices were considered in the Hydrocarbon engineer magazine article in November 2009 . This article demonstrates more closely how intelligence solutions can be utilized and what kind of added value they bring by introducing three examples of high-end emergency valve applications - Thanks to ICEweb sponsor METSO.
Innovative Passive Fire protection Cabinets Extend Margin of Safety for Critical Plant Shutdown Equipment - A novel new range of cabinets to protect critical process equipment in hazardous areas against very high temperature fires has been launched by the field equipment protection specialist Intertec. The cabinets ensure that equipment such as emergency shutdown valves remain operational by keeping them below 60 degrees Centigrade for periods of up to 90 minutes in the event of a hydrocarbon-based fire, to allow time for controlled shutdown. The new 90-minute protection capability - which Intertec believes to be a first in this sector of the industry - has been tested against the ANSI/UL 1709 standard by the test body MPA Dresden.
September 17 - 20, 2012 - Marriott Houston Westchase, Houston. Texas, USA
This School is the largest gas measurement school in the United
States devoted to natural gas measurement, pressure regulation, flow
control, and other measurement related arenas. The School focuses on
seven main subject groups including Fundamental Measurement,
Distribution, Transmission, Hands-on Training, Gas Quality, General
& Advanced Measurement and Office Procedures & Accounting,
Vortex Shedding Tutorial - Wade Mattar and James Vignos - This excellent Tutorial covers; Principle of Operation, Calculation of Mass Flow and Standard Volume, Flowmeter Construction, Application Considerations, Meter Selection, Meter Installation and Meter Configuration - from Invensys Foxboro.
Guide to Impulse Lines for Differential-Pressure Flowmeters - Good practice in the design and installation of impulse lines (small bore pipes) that connect a differential pressure flow meter to the instrument for measurement of the pressure difference is provided. The guide is intended to assist the designer to avoid known problems with impulse lines that can lead to incorrect measurement - from IDC and NEL.
Total Life Cycle Investment: Changing how we think about Well Head Gas Flow Meters-Tim Hayes - Operations Engineer, Spring Gully - In a time when large capital ventures are realising the need to consider total life cycle operational costs, reviewing lower maintenance flow meter technology may see a decrease in the expected operational expenditure on large Coal Seam Gas (CSG) projects - thanks to the Origin Energy Talent Search Team.
|Honeywell Analytics Gas Book - This updated handbook is intended to offer a simple guide to anyone considering the use of gas detection equipment. It provides an explanation of both the principles involved and the instrumentation needed for satisfactory protection of personnel, plant and environment. The aim has been to answer as many as possible of the most commonly asked questions about the selection and use of industrial gas detection equipment.|
Honeywell Launches Searchpoint Optima Plus IR Gas Detector with Optional HART® Output - Honeywell have announced the launch of a new Searchpoint Optima Plus model variant, which now includes HART® (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) communications protocol. Searchpoint Optima Plus is a market-leading Point IR (Infrared) gas detector offering high performance detection of a wide range of Hydrocarbon gases. With immunity to adverse weather affects such as snow, fog, rain and sunlight, and fail-to-safety operation, Searchpoint Optima Plus provides a flexible monitoring solution that is ideal for a diversity of hazardous applications. The addition of HART® to this device enables sites using a 4-20mA output to gain value-added functionality without any additional infrastructural wiring costs, because HART® works by superimposing a digital signal on an existing 4-20 mA cable, meaning that no additional cabling is required. HART® allows users to gain access to full information from Searchpoint Optima Plus anywhere in the loop, helping to save valuable time when carrying out routine maintenance work, because the full scope of work needed can be identified before entering the field.
From Singing to Sensing - IECEx Certifies Modern Gas Detectors and Sensors - Like a Canary in a Coal Mine - The use of canaries as gas detectors had been a mining tradition in the UK since 1911. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or methane in the mine would kill the bird before affecting the miners. Because canaries tend to sing much of the time, they would stop singing prior to succumbing to the gas, so alerting miners to the danger. As reliable as canaries might have been, the switch to electronic gas detectors actually made sense and brought greater safety. Technologies are evolving constantly and modern gas detection devices are state-of-the-art, extremely sophisticated devices that use sensors to identify potentially hazardous gas leaks. They are usually part of larger safety systems that can be found in a wide variety of locations such as mines, oil rigs, refineries, paper mills and industrial / waste water treatment plants. They are also widely used by firefighters. These devices often interface with control systems so that a process can be shut down automatically in dangerous situations. This is well worth a read - from IECEX.
EEMUA CompEx® Explosive Atmospheres - Application Design Engineer Competency Certification Launched - This competency scheme for personnel involved in hazardous area working to IEC 'Ex' standards – has taken a significant step forward in 2012 with the extension of the scheme to encompass professional engineers responsible for design and management of hazardous areas. Up to now, CompEx has focused primarily on the installers and maintainers. The new CompEx Unit (Ex12) Explosive Atmospheres – Application Design Engineer for professional engineers completes the safety linkage across the lifecycle of the hazardous area workplace from design through plant commissioning and operation. The new CompEx Unit Ex12 has been specially developed for professional engineers who design applications and systems for potentially explosive atmospheres, in line with the requirements of the international standard IEC 60079 Part 14. The Unit is also suitable for the professional engineers responsible for managing these hazardous workplaces through their commissioning and operating life.
A swag of information on this interesting subject.
Hydraulics Education Site - This technical reference site by R van den Brink has some useful information. This includes What is hydraulics?, Energy conversion in a hydraulic system, Gear Pump , Gear Pump with three wheels, Axial Piston Pump, Axial Piston Pump with Variable Displacement, Vane Pump, Vane pump with variable displacement, Axial piston pump with rotating barrel, Gearmotor, Radial piston motor 'startype' , Internal radial piston motor, Internal radial piston motor as a wheel motor, ORBIT-motor, Limited angle rotary actuator, Draining, Pressure relief valve, Pilot operated pressure relief valve, Pilot operated pressure relief valve as an unloading valve, Pressure relief valve in the motor circuit, Direction control valve, Flow control, Pressure compensated flow control, Pilot operated checkvalve, Counterbalance valve, Interactive animation of the counterbalance valve, Accumulator, Cylinder with end position cushioning, Closed loop system, Cavitation, Compressibility of fluids, The Escher-cylinder and Interesting links.
Pick the Proper Hose - Patrick Werrlein - Making a correct choice requires an understanding of hose components - The right hose keeps your process performing safely and cost effectively. The wrong hose could undermine your operations, put personnel at risk and compromise your bottom-line, sometimes without you being aware of it - from Chemical Processing.
Please support our Level Page sponsor Austral-Powerflo Solutions, see all their Magnetrol Level solutions on the page.
Measuring Level Interfaces - Measuring the Interface between Two Liquids in a Tank presents Unique Challenges - Gene Henry - A common measurement in the oil & gas, chemical, and petrochemical industries is detecting the interface level between two liquids in the same tank or vessel, such as oil and water. The dissimilar density or specific gravity of the two liquids means the lower density liquid will float on top of the higher density liquid. In some cases, the two liquids will entirely separate, resulting in a “clear” interface that will be easier to detect. In other cases, an emulsion or “rag” layer will exist between the two liquids. Other interface situations include multiple interfaces between more than two products, or the interface between a liquid and a solid. In some cases, it may be necessary to measure the thickness of the upper layer - from the ISA, InTech and Endress+Hauser.
Proper Employment of Guided Wave Radar in Steam Loops - Keith Riley and Ravi Jethra - This white paper discusses how guided wave radar can be used to measure level in steam applications such as feedwater tanks, high pressure preheaters, hotwells and drums from www.automation.com and and Endress+Hauser.
Securing SCADA systems from APTs like Flame and Stuxnet – Part 1 - Eric Byres - Recently a very complex worm called Flame has been discovered attacking companies in the Middle East, and it is an excellent example of what security experts call an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT). Figuring out how to defend against APTs is a major focus in the IT security world.
Securing SCADA systems from APTs like Flame and Stuxnet – Part 2 - Professor Paul Dorey recently presented a paper about the seven important lessons the IT world has learned in managing Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs). This article discusses lessons #2, #3 and #4, and how to apply these lessons to ICS and SCADA security.
Offshore Oil and Gas Platform: Cyber Security Implementation - An oil and gas production company operates a fixed natural gas and oil gathering and processing platform located in deep water on the US continental shelf. The platform serves multiple natural gas and oil wells connected by pipes running along the seabed back to the platform. The facility was designed to handle a high volume, thus there is a strong emphasis on reliability. Any downtime, whether caused by accidental or malicious forces, would interrupt oil and gas production and be very costly. The production company presented Cimation, a Tofino Certified System Integrator, with the challenge of maximizing the reliability and uptime of the platform.
Technical information on Cryogenic Ball, Gate, Globe and Check Valves - In the Oil and Gas industry, valves are exposed to some of the most extreme conditions imaginable. Corrosive and erosive environments and extremely high and low temperatures for example, require tough equipment, tough materials and tight tolerances. The technical links here provide engineering solutions. Check out our sponsor Prochem who have these solutions.
Lightning Protection System - Ultimate Line of Defense - Mark S. Harger - Lightning, one of nature’s most destructive forces, continues to wreak havoc on lives and property especially in today’s electronic environment. On average, a lightning strike contains approximately 50 million volts carrying 18,000–20,000 amperes of current, but strikes with up to 300 million volts and 200,000 amps are not that uncommon. To protect against this destructive phenomena, a properly designed and UL-listed lightning protection system is required. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 780 Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems defines a lightning protection system as “a complete system of strike termination devices, conductors, grounding electrodes, interconnecting conductors, surge suppression devices and other connectors or fittings [that] are required to complete the system.” How does this system work? Picture a hockey goalie protecting his net. He has four basic tools—gloves, mask, stick, and pads— that help him prevent the puck from entering the net. Just like a goalie, there are four main parts that comprise a lightning protection system - from Nema.
NIST Launches New Website to Educate Industry About Alternatives to Mercury Thermometers - As part of a larger effort to reduce the amount of mercury, a potent neurotoxin, in the environment, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has launched a new website to help industry scientists and engineers decide the best temperature measurement alternative for their purposes. The website also includes information about myths pertaining to mercury and temperature measurement and how to safely package and recycle mercury-containing products.
JUST HAVE A LOOK AT THIS PAGE! A huge repository of information on Actuators including Compact Actuator Solutions and Systems, Subsea Valve Actuator Applications, Offshore Valve Actuator Applications, Safety Related Systems Valve Actuator Systems, Spring Return Hydraulic Actuators, Spring Return Pneumatic Actuators, Compact Double Block & Bleed (DBB) Valve Actuators, Double Acting Actuator, Valve Actuator General Information, Scotch Yoke Design Valve Actuators, Firesafe Actuators, Hydraulic Actuator Design and Operation, Electrical Actuator Design and Operation, Control Valve Actuator Design and Operation and Valve Actuator Accessories. Check out our sponsor Prochem who have these solutions.
Matching Valve Type to Function - A Tutorial in Valve Selection - Michael D Adkins - In selecting valves for instrumentation, the choices are many and varied. The choice depends mostly on the application the valve is to be used for. When selecting a valve for an instrumentation system, your choices may seem overwhelming. Just to name a few, there are ball valves, diaphragm and bellows valves, as well as check valves, excess flow valves, fine metering, gate, multiport, needle, plug, relief, rising plug and safety valves. Further, each of these valves comes in many sizes, configurations, materials of construction and actuation modes. To make the best choice, it is always good practice to ask the first question in valve selection: what do I want the valve to do? From www.processonline.com.au
Clever pumping - All In One Drives Make the Water Industry’s Pumps Intelligent - Sanna-Kaisa Ehanto - The growing use of VSDs, particularly intelligent drives for pump control, represents a major departure from the standard operating practice of using control valves to vary fluid flow. With its low energy usage and low maintenance outlay, the total lifecycle cost of a VSD-controlled pumping system can be significantly less than traditional pump technology. Other VSD benefits include smoother start-ups and production changes, more precise control during continuous operation, and faster diagnosis of potential system problems before product quality or process operation is negatively affected. The emergence of intelligent pumps is a critical step forward in the evolution of process management. With embedded intelligence, VSDs can provide pump control, pump condition monitoring, protection and traditional energy saving benefits - from ABB Drives.
Thanks to our sponsor Invensys Triconex ICEweb's Safety Instrumented Systems page has been extensively upgraded with an alphabetical listing - so if you need more information on SIS just go to this page as a first "port of call"!
Why is Alarm Management Required in Modern Plants? - Stan DeVries - All modern process control systems provide alarm systems to assist process operators in managing abnormal situations. Nevertheless, the integrity and effectiveness of alarm systems can either provide assistance or be a hindrance to the process operators in responding to these situations. Through the efforts of the Abnormal Situation Management Consortium, EEMUA, and other professional groups, a large amount of best practice information exists to aid the control system engineer in designing effective alarm systems. However, due to various reasons, most existing control systems must be redesigned/re-engineered in order to take advantage of these newer system capabilities and best practices. The re-design/re-engineering of alarm systems in these control systems is a responsible first step in responding to the increasing frequency of industrial incidents and to begin to address the billions of dollars that these incidents cost manufacturers annually. By any comparison, the re-design/re-engineering efforts are well worth the investment. This white paper presents a new alarm philosophy and approach to achieve these objectives.
High Fidelity Dynamic Simulation of Compressor Systems - Realize the Benefits of "20/20 Hindsight" before Commissioning a New Compressor or New Compressor Controls - Jim Jacoby, Ian Willetts PhD and Alan Wade - In recent times, the integration of turbomachinery control functions and hardware into a single high reliability platform with robust control algorithms, such as the industry leading Triconex® Tricon® platform, has led to significant improvements in system performance and operability. In the past, a compressor train might have had separate controllers for suction pressure, recycle and turbine or motor speed as well as separate relay sequencing and alarm panels, a separate vibration-monitoring package and a separate over speed trip protection package. Now, to meet the requirements of today’s industry standards, only the over speed protection system is required.
Operational Excellence - Donald Clark, Peter G. Martin PhD, Vice Charles Piper and Simon Windust - Across industries and around the globe, today’s organizations find themselves under continued pressure to optimize business performance. With the dynamic nature of the marketplace and the level of complexity, this represents an ongoing journey, requiring a focus on the fundamentals of Operational Excellence. Attaining Operational Excellence requires that industrial companies maximize the efficiency and profitability from their operations through excellent control and drive maximum business value from all their industrial assets, all while reducing negative environmental impact and improving safety. The key to addressing all of these goals lies in empowering our most critical asset – our people. Therefore, Invensys has defined Operational Excellence along four key themes: Control Excellence, Asset Excellence, People Excellence and Environment and Safety Excellence.
Ensuring Safety in Process Design and Operation - Steve Blair - Ever since the Deepwater Horizon accident in 2010, safety and risk management has become the subject pushed to the forefront of every business operating in the oil and gas sector. This increased safety emphasis occurs against a backdrop of technological innovation, which has resulted in the general de-manning of process plants and the requirement for engineers to have broad skill sets to cover a wider range of responsibilities. As a consequence, there is a growing requirement for instrument manufacturers to apply their knowledge and expertise to on-site safety and operational assessments. A hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process, conducted to identify and evaluate problems that may represent a risk to personnel or equipment or prevent efficient operation. This increased drive to review safety processes can be reduced to two fundamental questions: whether a process is safe; and how an operations team will know if a specific process is not operating correctly - from the ISA and InTech.
To Err is Human: Using Technology to Try to Solve this Problem is Equally Human - In 2003, ConocoPhillips Marine conducted a study of the initial behaviours that are the root causes of incidents or accidents. It showed that for every 300,000 ‘at-risk’ behaviours there are 3000 near misses, 300 recordable injuries, 30 lost workdays and, ultimately, one fatality. In a control room scenario, if we can maximise the ability of the operator to make the correct decision when called upon, we can maximise human reliability with the aim of reducing the number of at-risk behaviours and ultimately the number of major incidents or fatalities - from www.processonline.com.au and PAS Inc.
Safety Standards Essential for Automation Tools - John Dressel - Safety networks requiring special documentation in instrument engineering automation systems include emergency shutdown systems (ESD), burner management systems (BMS), fire and gas systems (F&G), and SIS or interlock systems - from the ISA and InTech.
Cookbook Versus Performance SIS Practices - Angela E. Summers, Ph.D., P.E, and Michela Gentile - A Safety Instrumented System (SIS) is designed to achieve or maintain a safe state of the process when unacceptable process conditions are detected. An SIS is an Independent Protection Layer that is covered by the performance-based standard ANSI/ISA 84.00.01-2004. The risk reduction allocated to the SIS determines its target safety integrity level (SIL). ANSI/ISA 84.00.01-2004 allows a combination of factors to be considered in the verification of the SIL of the SIS. Performance-based practices provide flexibility to users, yet add complexity to the design process, encouraging project teams to reinvent the wheel for even widely used process equipment. For many engineering applications, prescriptive approaches are favoured due to simplicity. These so-called “cookbook” practices were very common in the process industry when ANSI/ISA 84.01-1996 was issued. They are also the backbone of many application standards and recommended practices. The cookbook typically specifies the SIS and maximum proof test interval based on analysis and accepted practice. The user must ensure that the cookbook assumptions are met by the existing equipment and mechanical integrity program. Otherwise, the installed risk reduction may not achieve the expected performance. This paper provides an example of a “cookbook” approach for a simple SIS and illustrates the effect of extending the proof test interval from 1 year to 5 years on its probability of failure on demand - from SIS-TECH Solutions.
To Err is Human: Using Technology to Try to Solve this Problem is Equally Human - In 2003, ConocoPhillips Marine conducted a study of the initial behaviours that are the root causes of incidents or accidents. It showed that for every 300,000 ‘at-risk’ behaviours there are 3000 near misses, 300 recordable injuries, 30 lost workdays and, ultimately, one fatality. In a control room scenario, if we can maximise the ability of the operator to make the correct decision when called upon, we can maximise human reliability with the aim of reducing the number of at-risk behaviours and ultimately the number of major incidents or fatalities - from www.processonline.com.au and PAS Inc.
The following links are from the 61508
What is a Functional Safety System? - A short description.
What is IEC 61508? - A short description.
Competence Guidelines - The crucial component in the management of functional safety is the competence of all those with a role to play throughout the safety system lifecycle. Clause 6 of IEC 61508 Part 1 specifies the requirements for the management of functional safety including reference to the need for those involved in any part of the safety system lifecycle to have the necessary competence.
What’s it all about? - Functional Safety Management within your reach - Whether you are working to IEC61511 on a process industry application or simply using BS EN 61508, the master standard for safety instrumented systems, Functional Safety Management is a basic requirement of the standard. It is required in IEC61508 part 1 clause 6 and IEC61511 part 1 clause 5.
What is Functional Safety Management? - This document gives a concise overview about Functional Safety Management Systems,
FREE downloadable Functional Safety Management Declaration -Describes what to do in three simple steps.
Getting advice and assistance
Includes details on the Functional Safety Management Declaration form, CASS Functional Safety Management Declaration
Lodging your Functional Safety Management Declaration
- download here in MS Word 97/2000 format (“.doc”)
- download here in ISO 26300 file format (“.odt”)
Help pages (in pdf format):
Help for Part 1 – download here.
Help for Part 2 – download here.
Help for Part 3 – download here.