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Manufacturing Machinery and Automation Safety
This page provides technical and engineering information on Machinery and Automation Safety. It includes a vast library of engineering white papers on the design, standards, installation, commissioning and maintenance of these critical systems.

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This very Comprehensive Resource has numerous links to Safety Instrumented Systems Technical Papers across a broad range of subjects and is Indexed Alphabetically - please click on the bookmarks to go to the relevant section that interests you. 

UK HSE documents - Machinery, Manufacturing and Automation Safety | Manufacturing, Machinery and Automation Safety Design  - Important Basics | Machine Safety System Maintenance | Machine Safety | Manufacturing, Machine and Automation Safety Standards | Machine Accident Investigation Kit | Safety Distance Calculator | Manufacturing, Machine and Automation Safety Fieldbus Systems | Switches |

UK HSE documents - Machinery, Manufacturing and Automation Safety

The Strategy for Workplace Health and Safety in Great Britain to 2010 and Beyond - The strategy is designed to promote our vision: to see health and safety as a cornerstone of a civilised society and, with that, to achieve a record of workplace health and safety that leads the world. Drawing on the last 30 years experience and extensive consultations with a wide range of stakeholders, the strategy sets out a new direction for the health and safety system and the roles of HSC, the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) and Local Authorities (LAs).
Five Steps to Risk Assessment - This leaflet aims to help you assess health and safety risks in the workplace - A risk assessment is an important step in protecting your workers and your business, as well as complying with the law. It helps you focus on the risks that really matter in your workplace – the ones with the potential to cause real harm. In many instances, straightforward measures can readily control risks, for example ensuring spillages are cleaned up promptly so people do not slip, or cupboard drawers are kept closed to ensure people do not trip. For most, that means simple, cheap and effective measures to ensure your most valuable asset – your workforce – is protected. The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, but you are required to protect people as far as ‘reasonably practicable’. This guide tells you how to achieve that with a minimum of fuss.
A Methodology for the Assignment of Safety Integrity Levels (SILs) to Safety-Related Control Functions Implemented by Safety-Related Electrical, Electronic and Programmable Electronic Control Systems of Machines - This contract research report describes the development by the authors, with funding from HSE, of a methodology for the assignment of required Safety Integrity Levels of safety related electrical control systems of machinery. The rationale behind the methodology and how to use it in practice are also explained in some detail. The methodology has been developed and accepted for inclusion in an informative annex of the International Electrotechnical Committee standard IEC 62061: "Safety of machinery Functional safety of electrical, electronic and programmable control systems for machinery" currently being drafted.
Procedures for Daily Inspection and Testing of Mechanical Power Presses and Press Brakes - This leaflet gives guidance on the minimum safety checks that should be carried out on mechanical power presses and press brakes by the appointed person, as required by regulation 33 of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 1998). It does not apply to hydraulic presses or those presses exempted from the requirements of regulation 33 as detailed in Schedule 2 in PUWER 1998. These may still require inspection in accordance with regulation 6 of PUWER. The daily inspection and test must be done on each press in use within the first four hours of every working period and after setting, resetting or adjustment of the tools when any of the guards or protection devices have been disturbed.
Power Presses: A Summary of Guidance on Maintenance and Thorough Examination - Power presses are dangerous machines which have caused many accidents over the years. The causes include poor maintenance of the press, its safeguards and its control system. This leaflet summarises what users of power presses and anyone who installs and maintains them has to do to meet their duties under the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998. It also introduces new guidance on power press maintenance and provides information on some important additions to the items that are now to be included in the thorough examination and test of a power press.
Using Work Equipment Safely - Every year, there are a number of accidents from using work equipment, including machinery. Many are serious and some are fatal. This leaflet gives simple, practical advice on what you can do to eliminate or reduce the risks from work equipment. It covers all workplaces and situations where the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 applies, including offshore installations.
Supplying New Machinery: a Short Guide- This leaflet can help you if you are supplying machinery for use at work. It explains the main health and safety requirements of the law which you need to know about, and what you can do in practice to meet them. You may already know about CE marking but there are other requirements which are also important.
Buying New Machinery: a Short Guide - This leaflet explains the main requirements of the health and safety laws which you need to know about when you are buying new machinery (for secondhand machinery, see question 16). Although the laws look complicated, they do not change what you have always had to do make sure that any new machinery you buy for use at work is safe.
Simple guide to the Provision and use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 - This leaflet provides information about the legal requirements of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) which came into force on 5 December 1998. It gives a general indication of some of the main requirements of the Regulations. However, it is important that you refer to the Regulations and accompanying Approved Code of Practice to familiarise yourself fully with your duties.
Evaluation of the Implementation of the Use of Work Equipment Directive and the Amending Directive to the Use of Work Equipment Directive in the UK - This report summarises the evaluation of the implementation of the Amending Directive (95/63/EC) to the Use of Work Equipment Directive (89/655/EEC) (AUWED) in the UK, as enacted in the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 98) and the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER). The evaluation describes how organisations responded to the regulations, the costs and benefits, compliance problems and difficulties, and areas of improvement in the regulations and Approved Codes of Practice (ACoPs). It concludes that there is a reasonable level of awareness and compliance with the regulations.
Health and Safety Regulation: a Short Guide - The Health and Safety Commission (HSC) conducted a review of health and safety regulation in 1994. It found that people were confused about the differences between guidance, Approved Codes of Practice (ACOPs), Regulations and how they relate to each other. This document aims to explain how each fits in. It is for employers and self employed people, but will be of interest to anyone who wants to know how health and safety law is meant to work.
Health and Safety Law - What You Need to Know - All workers have a right to work in places where risks to their health and safety are properly controlled. Health and safety is about stopping you getting hurt at work or ill through work. Your employer is responsible for health and safety, but you must help.
Managing Health and Safety: Five Steps to Success - Covers  
Managing Health and Safety
- Passport Schemes
- Health and safety training
- An introduction to health and safety
- What to expect when a Workplace Contact Officer calls
- Understanding Ergonomics - Reduce accidents and ill health and increase productivity by fitting the task to the worker.
- Managing health and safety: Five steps to success
- Getting specialist help with health and safety
- HSE statement to the external providers of health and safety assistance
- Consulting Employees on Health and Safety
- Safety representatives and safety committees on offshore installations
Costs of Accidents
- Reduce risks - cut costs. The real costs of accidents and ill health at work 
- Reduce risks - cut costs. The real costs of accidents and ill health at work. Cost Calculator 
Director's Responsibilities
- Directors' responsibilities for health and safety
Major Hazards
- Leadership for the major hazard industries: effective health and safety management
Training
- Health and safety training: what you need to know
Working with Contractors
- Use of contractors: a joint responsibility 
Workers Rights
- Your health, your safety: A guide for workers
Other Information - Information on managing specific risks, hazards or in specific industries - see the leaflets listed under those category headings.


Manufacturing, Machinery and Automation Safety Design  - Important Basics

Developing Functional Safety Systems with TÜV-Qualified FPGAs - This white paper discusses how market trends, the need for increased productivity, and new legislation have accelerated the use of safety systems in industrial machinery. This TÜV-qualified FPGA design methodology is changing the paradigms of safety designs and will greatly reduce development effort, system complexity, and time to market. This allows FPGA users to design their own customized safety controllers and provides a significant competitive advantage over traditional microcontroller or ASIC-based designs - from Altera
Safe Designs for Safe Workplaces - New Guide to Applying ISO 13849-1 and IEC 62061 - One of the big challenges facing machine builders has been choosing between ISO 13849-1 and IEC 62061. The IEC published a new guide at the end of July, 2010 called Technical Report IEC/TR 62061-1 ed1.0 Guidance on the application of ISO 13849-1 and IEC 62061 in the design of safety-related control systems for machinery. The new 38-page guide is available as a hard copy or a PDF file. Written jointly by Technical Committee IEC/TC 44, Safety of machinery – Electrotechnical aspects and Technical Committee ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery. The Technical Report was published in parallel by ISO as ISO/TR 23849.Technical Reports don’t have the same status as International Standards, but provide the TC’s with  a means to provide guidance and explanation to help users implement the standard.
Guidelines for Safe Machinery – Six Steps to a Safe Machine - This excellent document from SICK Sensor Intelligence is an extensive guide on the legal background relating to machinery and on the selection and use of protective devices. It has examples on various ways in which you can safeguard machinery and protect people against accidents taking into account the applicable laws, regulations, directives, and standards. The examples and statements given are the result of Sick’s many years of practical experience and are to be considered generic, not specific, applications. This guide describes the legal requirements relating to machinery in North America and their implementation. The safety requirements relating to machinery in other regions (e.g., Europe, Asia) are described in separate versions of this guide.

The Following are available from Proctor Machine Guarding - A short registration process is required to access them but it is worth it.
Workshop Safety Free Guide - A free guide to workshop safety that will benefit anyone responsible for the safety of machinery and work equipment.  The guide covers the folllowing topics: costs and benefits; regulations and legislation; general requirements for machine guards; specific machine types; other measures relating to machinery safety; standard; official information and guidance; useful resources; and sources of further information. 

The following articles are from the excellent publication Robotics online.
Interface Options for Robotic Safety Control Systems - James F. O’Laughlin -With the increasing acceptance of safety-rated network architectures and firmware-based control systems, users have the opportunity to leverage numerous benefits previously reserved for non-safety applications.  These systems are typically third-party certified to meet the requirements defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Ministry of Labour regulations as well as industry standards such as ANSI/RIA R15.06 Safety Requirements for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems .  This article provides information regarding existing and new safety interface technologies for use in robotic and other machine applications
Making Safety a Priority When Employing Tool Exchange Systems - This paper addresses the prerequisites for process safety at the employment of tool exchange systems on robots to safeguard that the utilization of tool changers does not threaten the welfare of the workers on the factory floor or adversely affect the total output of the production line.
Robot Safety and You: Examples of Real-Life Accidents We Can Learn From - .Jeff Fryman, Director of Standards Development, Robotic Industries Association
Robot Safety Begins with the Design Process - Stacy Kelly - To realize the many benefits that robots offer a production facility, safety considerations are THE top priority in protecting the operator, maintenance personnel and other personnel that interact with the robot.  These safeguards should be designed into and around the robotic cell early in the design process to maximize the inherent safety of the overall system.  Beyond the safeguarding products, the planning and implementation of these products are of critical importance for good safeguarding practices and factor heavily into optimizing system design and cost.  What are the potential hazards of the robotic cell?  What safeguarding technologies are available?  How do I keep out unnecessary personnel, yet protect necessary personnel?  How much panel space must be used for relays?  How difficult or easy will the troubleshooting of the system be?  And, of course, what is the overall reliability and safety of the system?
Safety Strategy - From a functional point of view the more efficiently a machine performs its task of processing material the better it is. Life, however, is not that simple and in order for a machine to be viable it must also be safe. Safety must be regarded as a prime consideration.To achieve a proper safety strategy there must be:
- Risk Assessment - based on a clear understanding of the machine limits and functions which must be analyzed to identify which ones pose a potential hazard. The degree of risk due to the hazard is then estimated in order to provide a basis for judgement at later stages. A risk evaluation is then required to determine if existing safety measures are satisfactory or whether additional measures are required to reduce the risk.|
- Risk Reduction -  is then performed if necessary and safety  measures are selected based on the information derived from the risk assessment stage.

The following information is supplied courtesy of Pilz.
Guide to Programmable Safety Systems - This is a large download in excess of 5Meg but it is worth the wait! This guide covers:
- Programmable Electronic Systems in Safety-related Applications
- Programmable Safety Systems: Concept
- Programmable Safety Systems: Hardware
- Programmable Safety Systems: Software
- Programmable Safety Systems: Selective Shutdown
- Programmable Safety Systems in Conventional Fieldbus Systems
- SafetyBUS p® Safe Bus System
- PSS®/SafetyBUS p® Applications
This A5-sized book runs to more than 200 pages and will be of interest to engineers and managers concerned with the safety of machinery and processes. Pilz has prepared the guide in response to the growing importance of electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic safety-related systems, and the increasing expectation of executive bodies requiring companies to comply with the principles and procedures of IEC 61508 (the series of standards for the functional safety of E/E/PES safety-related systems). It is thought that there is no other comparable publication that covers the topic in such detail, providing theoretical and practical advice and guidance on how to comply with the relevant legislation.
Guide to Machinery Safety
- Now in its sixth edition, the Pilz 'Guide to Machinery Safety' is still remarkably popular among machinery specifiers, machine designers, electrical designers, maintenance engineers and safety managers.
This excellent guide covers:
- Regulations for New Machinery
- Provision and Use of Work Equipment
- Regulations 1998
- European Harmonised Standards
- Risk Assessment
- Machinery Protection Devices
- Programmable Safety Systems
- Safe Networking
- Case Studies
The Golden Rules of Risk Assessment - Frank Schrever - At its worst, the risk assessment is a bureaucratic time-waster that does nothing to make workplaces safer. On the other hand, following five golden rules mean risk assessments can be both functional and lifesaving. From Pilz and Manufacturers Monthly.
Doing Safety the “Right Way” Lifts Productivity Too - Are safety and productivity incompatible? If safety is an afterthought, absolutely, but safety measures that are worked into the very design of manufacturing plant actually boost productivity, says Pilz managing director Frank Schrever.
Single Contactors for Category 3? Can Faults be Excluded? - Can single contactors be used for safety control category 3 if the contactor is over-rated?
The CE Mark – What Does it Really Mean? - The CE mark can be found on pretty much any electrical appliance in the home. Turn your laptop computer over and there will be a CE mark there somewhere, usually mixed in with other markings. Imported machinery can also be found to have a CE mark. So what exactly does a CE mark mean? Is the appliance or piece of machinery safe due to having a CE mark? Not necessarily.
Much more than Guarding, Safety is all in the Design- An article by Frank Schrever of Pilz
Why Everyone’s talking about Safety - Occupational health and safety (OHS) seems to be on the lips of every engineer around the world today, and for good reason – the sheer number of work related deaths is still shocking at an estimated 2,256,335 workers per year. The annual injury rate must be in the hundreds of millions.
How Functional Safety Helps to Save Lives -In this article Ron Bell explains functional safety and looks ahead to the revision of the IEC 61508standard that is due for publication in 2010.This article by Jeanne Erdmann was first published in the January 2008 edition of the IEC's E-TECH. http://www.iec.ch
Machinery Safety and the need to Save Money - It can be a false economy - or potentially dangerous - to try saving money on safety systems, yet careful design can reap rewards. Given the state of the economy, it is understandable that everyone has to be more careful with their budgets than ever before. But engineers should beware of trying to save money by buying cheaper safety-related products, as it could cost them dear in the long run.
Seize Control of Safety and Productivity - It is about time the people responsible for machine safety and operation – engineers, electricians and integrators – quite literally took control. Because plant safety is most effective when it is incorporated into the very design of the plant, it makes sense for the plant's designers and managers to design and manage its safety and control functions too. Unfortunately, this is rare. The rise of safe field bus and the safety PLC shredded the red tape associated with time consuming lockout tag-out procedures and promised to make safety every bit as efficient as the production line they safeguarded but with one serious limitation: the language of code made them inaccessible to many of their users. The design of safety systems instead became the domain of specialist programmers.


Machine Safety System Maintenance

The following information is supplied courtesy of Pilz.
When did you Last Inspect your Safety Light Curtains? - Companies using light curtains to safeguard machinery often do not appreciate the implications of the regulatory requirement for inspections.
Bypassing Safely - Quite often the question is asked "How do we gain access into a machine to make adjustments, clear jams, perform maintenance etc., while the machine is running, and do it safely?”. Usually people just turn the safety system off (bypass) which is unacceptable by law. Frequently, a simple key switch is used to just bypass a safety gate. The problem with this solution is that the key can be left in the switch and the machine will run with the safety gate open all the time, which is unsafe. The key itself may not be safe and, anyway, it depends on human behaviour, thus it is an "administrative control”, which is near the bottom of the hierarchy of risk control. A tongue switch on a safety gate could be bypassed simply by using a spare tongue, carried in an operator’s pocket (a very common problem)!
Don’t Open the Door to Risk - Clever Gate Management offers Safety and Productivity - Provided an operator does not have to set foot in an installation, his safety can be easily guaranteed using simple means. Gates, flaps or covers provide mechanical protection. However, maintenance, cleaning or set-up require direct access. This must be risk-free, as far as possible, and must not obstruct the production process-see page 5.


Machine Safety

The following information is supplied courtesy of Pilz.
Playing it Safe - Comply with all the Standards when Interlinking Machinery - Many budgets do not provide for the purchase of new machinery in difficult economic times. That’s why the option to upgrade existing plant and machinery is a practicable and significant alternative to buying new. However, in the process, operators often overlook the fact that a machine’s existing declaration of conformity is rendered invalid if it undergoes a significant change.
Emergency Stops – Make sure yours Comply - As Emergency Stops are the last line of defence in machine safety it is imperative that they operate correctly when/if required. So what are some of the things you can do to ensure the E-Stop will work when called upon? This technical paper takes a detailed look at the different types of Emergency Stop Devices and what you can do to ensure their effectiveness. 
Metal Lathes - Can they be made Safe? - Frank Schrever - How can these risks be minimised? A simple interlocked chuck guard connected via a Category 4 control system in accordance with AS4024.1 that prevents the machine from starting while open, will remove or significantly reduce most lathe safety risks.
Concepts for Secure Safety Gate Monitoring -The Right Sensor for every Requirement - Increasing automation in mechanical engineering means that the demands on machine safety are also rising. Aspects of process safety, availability and cost-effectiveness must all be reconciled. Safety guards or gates ensure that operating personnel are protected against flying metal swarf or hazardous movements on plant and machinery. Their position can be monitored by a wide range of safety switches available on the market, which take into account not only safety-related aspects but economic considerations too. The switch you use will depend partly on the machine and partly on the safety-related requirements.


Manufacturing, Machine and Automation Safety Standards

Guide: Common Machine Safety Standards, Terms, Violations: Terms you need to know - Understanding machine safety standards and terms remains a challenging first step to spotting and reducing risks and increasing profitability. Sources for help are many. Standards organizations covering machine safety include American National Standards Institute (ANSI), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Robotics Industries Association (RIA), and U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), among others. Requirements are numerous; some are more obvious than others. From automationworld.com and Siemens.
Programmable Safety Begets New Standard
- Safety-integrity levels spelled out in European standards increasingly impact equipment designers in the U.S. - Dave Collins  - Thanks to Machinedesign.com

The following papers are from ICEweb sponsor IDC Technologies - Specialists In Engineering Courses & Training
Machinery and Automation Safety – Safety Categories vs. Performance Levels vs. Safety Integrity Levels: Which is Best?
- Ken Robertson - Senior Consultant, Machine Safety Consulting Pty Ltd - Following recent local and international changes in machine safety standards, there is a state of flux within the Australian machine safety sector, and some confusion over which is the best option to use for machine safety. AS 4024 and AS 62061 provide different techniques for the machine safety process, further complicated by the addition last year of AS 4024.1503, which is an adoption of ISO 13849. This now offers two methodology options within the Australian machine safety standard. The objective of this paper is to clarify this situation and provide a better understanding of how these standards can be used to achieve effective machine safety solutions for Australian industry - compliance - from the IDC Safety Control Systems Conference 2015
Applying Functional Safety to Machine Interlock Guards - Craig Imrie - Technology Specialist: Safety, NHP Electrical Engineering Products - With the recent Australian adoption of functional safety standards IEC62061 Ed 1 and ISO 13849-1:2006, a greater emphasis has been placed on systematic failures and common cause failures for machine safety control systems. This has been a major issue when designing interlock guards and trying to achieve PL or SIL requirements. With the new revision of the AS 4024.1 series, ISO 14119:2013 has been adopted as AS 4024.1602. Due to this new standard, information is now at hand to provide guidance on designing interlock guards to achieve the requirements of PL and SIL. This paper explains the new design considerations of this standard - - from the IDC Safety Control Systems Conference 2015

The following useful technical notes are from Leuze Electronic.
IEC/EN 62061 "Safety of Machinery – Functional Safety of Safety-related Electrical, Electronic and Programmable Electronic Control Systems" - Some useful notes on this standard. 
Selecting Protective Devices - Standard EN ISO 12100-2 Notes on Selecting Protective Devices - If the hazards cannot be prevented or sufficiently limited by constructive measures, protective devices must be planned and provided. The selection of a suitable protective device must be made either in accordance with an existing machine specific provision, e.g. a European C-standard, or on the basis of a risk assessment of the respective machine.
Guarding with Opto-Electronic Protective Devices IEC TS 62046 "Safety of machinery – Application of protective equipment to detect the presence of persons" contains basic information for selecting, applying, connecting and putting active opto-electronic protective devices and pressure-sensitive Safety Mats into operation. It addresses the authors of machine-specific C-standards, designers, test centres and anyone that is involved with the professional installation of such protective devices. The information refers to the recommendations of IEC TS 62046 as the international state of technology. In principle to be observed with priority: the operating instructions of the protective devices, regional regulations or machine- specific standards.
Selecting and Applying Opto-Electronic Protective - The steps required in accordance with the standards.
Calculating Safety Distance - Opto-electronic protective devices can only perform their protective function if they are installed with a sufficient safety distance from the nearest point of operation. The safety distance from the protective device to the point of operation must big enough that the dangerous movement will have stopped before a part of the person’s body can reach the point of operation. This note refers to the calculation formulas of ISO 13855/EN 999 "Safety of machinery – Positioning of protective equipment with respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body" and the recommendations of IEC TS 62046.
Calculation Safety Distance, Right-Angle Approach - Calculation formula for the minimum safety distance for AOPD with right-angle approach (point of operation guarding).
Calculation Safety Distance, Parallel Approach - Calculation formula for the minimum safety distance for AOPD with parallel approach (danger area guarding).
Calculation Safety Distance, Access Guarding - Calculation formula for the minimum safety distance of Multiple Light Beam Safety Devices for access guarding.
US Specifications for Safety Distance Calculation - The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 29, Part 1910, Subpart 0 defines the calculation of the minimum safety distance of a protective device. OSHA 1910.217 requires that with the installation of a Safety Light Curtain a minimum distance, which corresponds with the prescribed distance of a hard guard, is observed in every case (see OSHA 1910.217, table 0-10). If the safety distance calculation results in a greater value, this must be used.
Guarding with Hard Guards - A note on guarding with hard guards (fence heights, fixing instructions, safety distances, etc.)
Fixed Hard Guards - Fixed hard guards can always be used when the access to the danger area is not required during the normal operation. These include protective fences, barriers, fixed covers, etc. Fixed hard guards are also frequently used in combination with opto-electronic protective devices as supplementary protective devices. EN ISO 12100-2 requires that fixed hard guards must be firmly held in their place with constructive measures.
Movable Hard Guards - If the access to the danger area is required during the normal operation or for maintenance work, active opto-electronic protective devices, such as Safety Light Curtains or moveable hard guards such as protective doors or flaps, must be used. This kinds of movable protective devices must be position monitored via safety switches or safety guard interlocking, and electrically connected with the control unit (for further requirements see EN ISO 12100-2).

Machine Safety in the EU

Introduction
1.1 European Directives
1.2 Machinery Directive 98/37/EG
1.3 The new Machinery Directive 2006/42/EG
1.4 Use of Work Equipment Directive 89/655 EEC
1.5 Correlation between directives and harmonized European standards
1.6 Formulation process of a harmonized standard
1.7 Hierarchy of European standards for machine
1.8 Examples of EN and ISO/IEC standards in the machine safety area
1.9 Safety of machinery, risk analysis and risk assessment
1.10 Safety-related parts of control systems
1.11 EN 954-1: „Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems"
1.12 EN ISO 13849-1 "Safety of machinery – Safety related parts of control systems – Part 1: General principles for design"
1.13 IEC/EN 62061 "Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems"

Machine Safety in the USA
Introduction
2.1 OSHA Regulations
2.2 US Standards, ANSI, NFPA, UL
2.3 Strategy for Risk Reduction
2.4 Control Reliability

The following information is supplied courtesy of Pilz.
Standards for Electrical Safety - The following standards are some of the most important for machine electrical safety:
            - EN 60204: Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines     
               - EN 60947-5: Low voltage control gear
            - NFPA 79: Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery
Standards for Functional Safety  - Attention planners, constructors and users - here's where to find out more about the functional safety standards - As the causes of hazards and therefore the technical measures needed to avoid them can vary greatly, a distinction is made between different types of safety, e.g. by stating the cause of potential hazards. For example we talk about "functional safety" when safety depends on the correct function of an electrical (E), electronic (E) and programmable electronic (PE) system (in short: E/E/PE systems). The following standards are some of the most important in this area:
                - EN ISO 13849: Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems
               - EN/IEC 62061: Safety of machinery - Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems
                - EN/IEC 61508: Functional safety of safety-related electrical/electronic/programmable electronic systems
                - EN/IEC 61511: Functional safety - Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector
                - EN 954: Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems
Safety Compendium - For the application of functional safety standards - The primary purpose of safety technology on and in machinery is to protect people from potential hazards. At the same time it protects the environment and the actual machine from harm.The new safety compendium is aimed at all those in mechanical engineering who deal with the issue of functional safety and all its associated aspects. The compendium is intended as an orientation guide for the application of functional safety standards. View the compendium for free here.
New Efficiency Classification - Standards and Laws for Electric motors are Intended to Increase Energy Efficiency - The efficiency of motors has recently been classified with a new international system, the IE-Code. This replaces the previous effi ciency classes. European legislators are also using the system as the basis for a new regulation, which describes the statutory minimum requirements for the efficiency of motors and the use of electronic variable speed drives.
There are Two Sides to Everything - Convert to EN ISO 13849-1 Early and Exploit the Opportunities - At the end of 2009 the EU Commission applied the brake to the standards: By extending the transition period for EN 954-1 until 31.12.2011, it initially halted the sole application of EN ISO 13849-1. Machine manufacturers and operators now have two more years in which to convert to the new standard. Only time will tell if they really know how to take advantage of this deferral. Many are only counting the additional cost. The fact that the new standard also offers benefits is often overlooked. See Page 4.
New GL Guideline for the Certification of Wind Turbines - This guideline calls for measures on wind turbines to reduce risk through control functions. Their purpose will be to keep the plant within its design specifi cations under all expected infl uences and fault conditions. The design of safety-related control functions in accordance with EN ISO 13849-1 is named as an appropriate measure. This applies not only when the wind turbine is in automatic mode but also for the period in which service personnel are working on the turbine during regular maintenance, for example (DIN EN 50308).
Replacement for EN 954-1: standard EN ISO 13849-1 is harmonised! - EN ISO 13849-1, as the successor to EN 954-1, is to become the main standard for the design of safety-related control systems in the "machinery safety" sector (the only dissenters were Great Britain, USA and Japan). The new standard was published in November 2006; It was listed as a harmonised standard under the European Machinery Directive in May 2007. There will be a three-year transition period, expiring November 2009, during which the standard EN 954-1 can continue to be used in parallel. This article covers;  Status of standardisation, the main reasons for revising EN 954-1, what will change and how to reach your goal in six steps.
Examining Robot Safety Standard- Roberta Nelson Shea -  L.P.ANSI R15.06-1999 is the accepted American National Standards Institute standard covering safety requirements for industrial robots and robot systems. Speaking of safety, it’s safe to say that many end users or systems integrators simply assume that any new robots or systems automatically meet this standard, when in reality, regularly reviewing how the standard applies to your manufacturing operation can be very beneficial, even in non-robotic applications.
Risk Assessment still vital under new Victorian Regulations - The new Victorian Occupational Health and Safety Regulations are designed to simplify safety but, in the case of risk assessments, their release has caused real confusion. From safetysolutions.net.au.
AS4024 vs. AS61508 - Just as Australian industry comes to grips with safety standard AS4024, a newer, more complex, international and now also an Australian standard is gaining wider usage.
Laws, Standards and Approvals: Exploring the compliance jungle- When a machine is said to be “approved” or meets a particular design standard, sometimes the claim is misleading or irrelevant, but may actually hint at a legal necessity. From ferret.com.au.

The following are available from Proctor Machine Guarding - A short registration process is required to access them but it is worth it.
Risk Assessment Calculator (XLS) - A free Risk Assessment Calculator that is based on the requirements of BS EN 1050, the standard for machinery risk assessments. Designed to be easy to use, the Risk Assessment Calculator incorporates checklists and look-up tables to enable risk assessments to be carried out on almost any static machinery. A Hazard Rating Number (HRN) and Risk Level are calculated automatically for each identified hazard, thereby indicating at-a-glance where users should consider taking action. The Risk Assessment Calculator is based on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, though very little knowledge of this software package is required in order to use the tool. All of the calculations are handled automatically, leaving the user to enter the data and decide on the values to use for 'Likelihood of Occurrence', 'Frequency of Exposure', 'Degree of Possible Harm' and the 'Number of Persons at Risk' using the guides provided.
Free Guide to Machinery Guarding Standards - A free guide to machinery guarding standards. Available as a PDF document that can be printed by the recipient, this guide is the second edition of the hugely popular 'On Your Guard', updated to reflect changes in standards and with additional references to conveyor guarding.
Guide to the new Machinery Directive -On 29 December 2009 the existing Machinery Directive will be replaced by a new Directive 2006/42/EC, which has important implications for companies building or importing machinery for use in the European Economic Area. Procter Machine Guarding is offering a free 'Guide to the New Machinery Directive' to help companies prepare for the new regime. Although the main thrust of the new Directive is simplification and clarification - especially with regard to relationships with other Directives - there are other changes that will have a significant impact. In this third amendment of the Machinery Directive, alterations have been made in respect of the scope, partly-completed machinery, fixed guards, conformity assessment procedures, enforcement and other areas.
New Machinery Directive and Fixings for Fixed Guards - The new Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC and the latest edition of the guarding standard BS EN 953 include a requirement for fixings for fixed guards to remain attached when the guards are removed.  This white paper explains the requirement and provides information to help designers select fasteners for particular guarding applications.  Useful design tips will also help to minimise the costs associated with installing captive fasteners. 
Machinery Guarding Standards (On Your Guard) - A Guide to Machinery Guard standards that helps you identify the standards you and your suppliers should be using the design fully compliance Machine Guard

The following articles are from the excellent publication Robotics online.
New RIA Technical Report on Robot Safety - Jeff Fryman - If you have not already seen it, soon you will see the announcement that the Robotic Industries Association has introduced a new Technical Report, R15.206 providing Guidelines for Implementing ANSI/RIA/ISO 10218-1-2007.  Of course this is always exciting news when we release a new document, particularly because of the effort of a large number of individuals that goes into producing them.
News About Changes in Robot Standards -Jeff Fryman- New Standard Addresses Wireless Pendants; Safety Rated Axix Limiting; Multiple Arms and more.


Machine Accident Investigation Kit

Machine Accident Investigation Kit - A free Machine Accident Investigation Kit that will help small and medium-sized manufacturing companies perform investigations so that they meet their statutory obligations and prevent similar accidents from occurring in the future - from Proctor Machine Guarding - A short registration process is required to access them but it is worth it.


Safety Distance Calculator

Safety Distance Calculator (XLS) - a free Safety Distance Calculator for establishing the required safety distances and heights of machine guards in accordance with BS EN 294, Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs - from Proctor Machine Guarding - A short registration process is required to access the calculator.


Manufacturing, Machine and Automation Safety Fieldbus Systems

Distributed Control Provides Plug and Play Function Blocks - Mechatronics with distributed processing provides a modern object-oriented application that can help machine builders to reduce costs and give more flexibility in building customer-specific products. For the efficient realisation of creating mechatronic objects - functional assemblies that can slot together to make new systems - the communication, control system and engineering tools must all be optimised for distributed control. SafetyNET p ticks all the boxes says Ralf Möbus of Safety Network International.
SafetyBUS p - The safe, open bus system- This is the first open, safe bus system to have been approved by BG to category 4 in accordance with EN 954-1, EN 60204, EN 62061 and by TÜV to AK 6 in accordance with DIN V 19 250, SIL 3 in accordance with EN IEC 61508 and NFPA 79. This guarantees a wide application area for safety applications, from which users in plant and machine engineering as well as the automotive industry can benefit.
PROFIsafe: Networked Safety for Process and Factory Automation -ARC presents some compelling benefits for using PROFIsafe and two success stories. 


Switches

Switches- Some excellent technical links from the Switches Reference Centre.


Looking for Safety Instrumented Systems? ICEweb has this well covered on our SIS page