ICEweb has nearly 100 Control, Instrumentation, Fire & Gas, Safety Instrumented Systems core pages and a total of more than 300 pages - It Really is Cool Engineering - By Engineers for Engineers it must be just about the World's first choice for Technical Information.

Whilst every effort is made to ensure technical accuracy of the information supplied on, Keyfleet Pty Ltd and its employees accept no liability for any loss or damage caused by error or omission from the data supplied. Users should make and rely on their own independent inquiries. By accessing the site users accept this condition. Should you note any error/omission or an article offends please do not ignore it, contact the webmaster and we will review, rectify and remove as necessary. We welcome contributions from individuals or corporations. However, it must be highlighted that the technical information is posted on a non-commercial basis and thus commercial references are not permitted. We will publish an acknowledgement or the information's source. Commercial links can be supported by sponsoring the technical page, or having a link from the 'Suppliers' Icon on the Technical Information Page.

Techweb - The Instrument, Control, Electrical, Fire and Gas and Safety Instrumented Systems Engineers Technical Resource 

With over 50 years of service to industry in WA, HINCO Instrument's reputation is well-established and their ongoing commitment to quality products and services ensures that they maintain this reputation. The company motto "Quality Instruments-Quality Service" applies to all the services provided: supply; calibration; repair; installation; wiring & commissioning. HINCO Instruments is also quality certified to ISO 9001:2008.  HINCO Instruments supplies quality instruments for diverse process control and test and measurement applications.  Full technical support and testing, calibration and repair services are also available. Traceable & NATA calibrations and repair services are carried out at their fully-equipped laboratory & service centre in Canning Vale Western Australia. 

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Accelerometers- Technical papers about measuring vibration, shock or pressure plus AC and DC signal conditioning equipment - you will have to log on but it will be worth the effort (From Endevco -

Acronyms for Engineers- A comprehensive list of some 900+ of those "dreaded" acronyms.

Acronyms - from Ireland's great readout magazine.

Australian Standards - See Standards

Baseefa information

Bursting Disks- a full page of links

Cables-IEEE 1242 Specifying and Selecting Cable for Petrochemical Plants a Guide -By Donald A Voltz and Joseph H Snow, this is a really excellent technical paper from Mustang Engineering

Cables - Best Practices for Process Instrumentation Cabling - Connectivity glues the network together; Cabling, grounding, cable routing, and the mitigation of noise and interference - Saeed M. AL-Abeediah - The health and effectiveness of any plantís Process Automation System (PAS) relies on many factors. Among these factors is the proper selection of PAS components, seamless integration, control schemes, control system installation, and last but not least, proper electrical installation and connectivity of field instrumentation devices. This last factor, which glues the entire PAS system together, involves cabling, grounding, cable routing, and mitigation of external influences such as noise and interference. Thanks to the ISA and InTech.

Cable Glands Why Should You Specify Cable Glands? - How often have we heard:- "We don't specify Cable Glands, as long as they have the relevant certification then it must be fit for purpose. We leave it to contractor to sort out. We are too busy concentrating on the high value, long lead time items to bother about such an insignificant value product. In a recent paper presented at the Hazard Ex conference by a Senior Manager of CENELEC Standards Inspections, it was stated, "Resources should be directed at eliminating the following common faults; Unauthorised modifications, badly made-off or unsuitable cable entry devices and Corrosion. It went on to say that out of these three factors, the most common fault was bad installation of Cable Glands. The paper was specifically referring to maintenance procedures, but this could equally be applied to new installations. Incorrect specification and installation combined with the lack of ability to inspect the Cable Gland in it's operable condition can cause equipment failure and corrosion of cable armour and braid. The safety risks inherent in this is incalculable, as is the consequential loss of production.This statement alone should be enough reason why specification of Cable Glands is an important decision. Just relying on the fact that a Cable Gland has a certificate "fit for purpose" is not enough - from Hawke International.

Calculator - A super calculator for when you don't have one available

Calculators and Conversions
Martindale's Reference Desk Calculators On-Line Center site has the lot...a little complex in its navigation however.

Calibration and Testing  - ICEweb dedicated page full of information on calibration and Testing thanks to sponsor Zedflo Australia.

Classification of Hazardous Areas Technical Information page - including design, classification, installation and maintenance information.

Common Fluropolymer Comparison Chart (Supplied by Swagelok)

Communication in the Field (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Communication Networks (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Compression Fittings

Constants (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

Control Engineering Terminology and Symbols (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) - Planning, design and start-up of process control systems require clear and unambiguous communication between all parts involved. To ensure this, we need a clear definition of the terms used and . as far as the documentation is concerned . standardized graphical symbols. These symbols help us represent control systems or measurement and control tasks as well as their device-related solution in a simple and clear manner.

Control Valves - ICEweb's Comprehensive Control Valve Technical Information Page covers Selection and Design, Cavitation and Flashing in Control Valves, Control Valve Actuators, Butterfly Control Valves, Control Valve Sizing, Split Range Control Valves, Control Valve Applications, Control Valve Noise Calculation and Prediction, Control Valve Maintenance, Control Valve Positioners and Self Operated Regulators

Controller feedback-From the University of Exeter


Conversions from

Conversions - Megaconverter makes it easy

Corrosion- Look at ICEweb's Corrosion Page for links to loads of information

Cylinder- Air Consumption calculations (From Cole Parmer)


Density Conversions

Digital Signals (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Distributed Control and Programmable Electronic Safety Systems for a large offshore oil and gas platform

Electrical Theorems and Formulae for Students and Engineers (An excellent site from BOWEST PTY Ltd - A fellow West Australian Company)

Electrical Information from Valhalla Scientific - Includes Fundamentals of Power Measurement, Power related Topics and Parameters, Motor and Generator application notes, Transformer application notes and Benefits of power analysis on product reliability.

Electrical Information 
Including Cenelec and IEC hazardous Area Information,  North American Hazardous locations,  IP code information and Abbreviations, Acronyms and Definitions-From Hawke International

Electrical - The Differences between Watts and Volt Amps - Steve Mackay - I often get questions about the practical differences between watts (W) and volt-amperes (VA); mainly from our civil and mechanical engineering fraternity; but surprisingly also from some electrical types. As you would know, electrical products generally indicate both to show how much energy and current they draw. This Blog details a quick summary of the differences with some interesting alternative calculations to work out total VA.

Electrical Lighting - How much does it cost you to change a light globe? - Do you want to dramatically reduce your lighting maintenance costs and reduce your risk hazards? Lighting maintenance is a necessity and often an expensive job in the industrial work place today. The costs involved are usually high due to the positioning of light fittings. This no longer needs to be the case. The installation of an In2 Light Hatchģ will dramatically reduce the costs involved in changing light globes on industrial work sites.

Exd Immersion heaters 
Over the years it has been difficult to source Exd Certified immersion heaters and often this has led to a certification nightmare for those engineers responsible for the associated equipment packages. These IEC certified heaters may provide the solution

Ex Hazardous Area Technical Information page ,including design, classification, installation and maintenance information. Loads of great technical information here.

Electronics Basics (

Electronic /Electrical terms and definitions-Looking for an electronic or electrical term and its definition? Electropedia is the world's leading online electrical and electronic database containing more than 20 000 terms and definitions in English and French organized by subject area, with equivalent terms in German and Spanish. This is a terrific resource thanks to the IEC.

Emerson PlantWeb University

Fibre Optic Cables- The Basics - An excellent  tutorial from ARC Electronics

ICEweb's Fieldbus Pages
Foundation Fieldbus - Foundation technology is the world's leading digital protocol for process automation. It provides end users with the "Freedom to Choose" best-in-class, interoperable control products from their suppliers of choice, and the "Power to Integrate" control systems, subsystems and devices across the plant enterprise. The result is improved plant performance-and greater business results.
CANopen- CANopen is a CAN-based higher layer protocol. It was developed as a standardized embedded network with highly flexible configuration capabilities. CANopen was designed for motion-oriented machine control networks, such as handling systems. By now it is used in many various fields, such as medical equipment, off-road vehicles, maritime electronics, public transportation, building automation, etc.
HART - The HART Protocol was developed in the mid-1980s by Rosemount Inc. for use with a range of smart measuring instruments. Originally proprietary, the protocol was soon published for free use by anyone, and in 1990 the HART User Group was formed. In 1993, the registered trademark and all rights in the protocol were transferred to the HART Communication Foundation (HCF). The protocol remains open and free for all to use without royalties. This technical section focuses on providing information that is relevant to the various aspects of the HART Protocol. We will discuss what it is, how it works, and the benefits of using the HART Protocol.
Industrial Ethernet 
Industrial Ethernet offers significant advantages including;
- Integrated communication from the machine to the office
- No gateways required at transition from field level to office
- Remote diagnostics and monitoring through Internet connection
- Advantageous assignment of stations using virtual private networks (VPNs)
MODBUS - MODBUS is the most popular industrial protocol being used today, for good reasons. It is simple, inexpensive, universal and easy to use. Even though MODBUS has been around for nearly 30 years, almost all major industrial instrumentation and automation equipment vendors continue to support it in new products.
Profibus - Utilizing a single, standardized, application-independent communication protocol, PROFIBUS supports fieldbus solutions both in factory and process automation as well as in motion control and safety-related tasks.

Fire & Blast Information Group (FABIG)

ICEweb's Comprehensive Fire Detection Page - Links on CCTV Techniques, Detector Selection, Fire and Flame Detection, Fire Detector Maintenance, Fire Systems Integrity Assurance, Eliminating False Fire Alarms, Oil Mist Detectors, Smoke Detectors and Lots More!

Fire Detection and Emergency Warning Systems in Buildings (Supplied by Ampac industries Pty Ltd)

Fire and Gas Technical Page- ICEweb's great technical information and links

ICEweb's Fire Protection Page - Covers Fire Protection including Carbon Dioxide, Water Mist, Inergen and More!

Fire Safe Actuators - from Samson Controls

Fittings - 10,000 PSI Fittings Specification (Supplied by Prochem)

Fittings - NPT thread Tolerances (Supplied by

Flare Pilot System Safety - John Bellovich, Jim Franklin, and Bob Schwartz - One of the worst nightmares a plant manager can experience is a complete flare system outage. The flare system is the last line of defense for many refining and petrochemical facilities and, when out of commission, can cause the shutdown of the entire facility. Flare ignition failure may lead to unburned venting of dangerous gases, and may develop into an explosive hazard leading to the loss of property and equipment, or worse, injury to personnel or loss of life. The safety and effectiveness of flaring are dependent upon one or more continuously burning pilots for immediate and sustained ignition of gases exiting a flare burner. Because pilot failure can compromise safety and effectiveness, it should be detected quickly and accurately to allow prompt automatic and/or operator response. Proper disposal of process and waste gases during routine and/or emergency conditions is crucial to help operating facilities protect plant employees and the surrounding community, and to avoid hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines. These reasons alone make the pilot monitoring and ignition system the most important component of any flare system. The advanced flare pilot systems explained in this article offer increased protection from harsh environmental conditions and rapid notice of pilot flame failure. Recently published industry standards for flare pilot design and performance are also discussed - from John Zinc Company.

Install Electronic Flare Ignition Devices - This technology replaces the intermittently or continuously burning flare pilots with electrical sparking pilots similar to a modern gas stove. These sparking pilots require low electrical power that can be supplied from a battery with solar recharge in remote sites. In addition to using electronic flare ignition devices for pilots, facilities may also install sensors to detect the pilot sensors to detect the pilot flame and shut off fuel gas if the pilot is extinguished - from EPA.

Developments in the Field of Electronic Ignition Flaring Systems - With the developments in chemistry and petrochemistry on one hand, and concern for the environment on the other, more and more requirements are being set for the emission of flaring systems. Flaring systems have undergone considerable development, from a pipe with a perpetual flame to a well thought-out combustion system with pilot flame burners, purge gas, steam injection and automatic ignition - from Smitsvonk Holland BV.

Flame and Gas Detection Handbook - Ampac Industries Pty Ltd

Float Magnetic Level Measurement

Flow and Level Calibration Information Notes (INX Inc)

Flow Conversions

Flow Metering

All articles kindly
provided by
Andy Jamieson. 

New Developments in Metering Technology
Recent Experience on Implementation of New Techniques of Gas Metering

Multiphase Metering

Multiphase Metering - The Challenge of Implementation
High-performance Multiphase Metering - A Personal Perspective

Flowmeters, Liquid (

Flowmeters Selection Part 1 and Part 2 (Great Info from Cole Parmer)

Flow Measurement information Notes (INX Inc)

Flow-Water Measurement Manual (US Government Water Resource Research Laboratory)

Fluid Fundamentals (Cole Parmer)


Foundation Fieldbus (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Fuzzy Logic - All you wish to know on this ICEweb page


Gas Detection - This incredibly useful Engineering Technical Information resource from ICEweb covers Principles of Gas Detection | Gas Detection Technical References | Gas Detection Technology and Applications | Comparision of Gas Detection Technologies | Planning and Designing Gas Detection Systems | Addressable Gas Detectors | Air Duct Gas Detection | Catalytic Combustible Gas Detectors | Calibrating Gas Sensors | Open Path Infra Red Gas Detectors | Gas Detection Certification | Gas Detection using Laser Technology | Gas Detection using Photoacoustic Infrared Technology | Gas Detection in Gas Turbines and Compressor Stations | Gas Detection Standards | Portable Gas Detection | Portable Gas Detection Bump Testing | Toxic Gas Monitors | Ultrasonic Gas Leak Detection

Halon use in Fire suppression

ICEweb's Comprehensive HART Communications Protocol Page 

HART Communications (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Reading HART Data into Non-HART Systems - Many HART products are able to perform more than one measurement or output function (e.g., make multiple process measurements, calculate process information, and provide positioner feedback information). All of this information can be easily accessed digitally. However, existing controllers or interface equipment may not have the ability to read digital HART data. Products are available that can read HART digital signals and convert them to analog (4-20mA) and alarm trip (contact closure) information, which enables any traditional analog control system to take full advantage of the benefits of HART- communicating devices. From our valued sponsor Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.

Hazardous Area Technical Information page ,including design, classification, installation and maintenance information.

Hi-Fog Fire Suppression

High Integrity Pipeline Protection Systems (HIPPS)

Humidity Analysers (PDF, compressed)
    Product quality improvement with correct moisture
     measurement in thermal processes using electrolytic hygrometers.
     From Able Instruments

Humidity (PDF, compressed)
    Theory and Information of Condensation Chilled Mirror
     Hygrometers (some good humidity definitions)- From Able Instruments.

Humidity Sensors for Industrial Applications
    (Able Instruments and Controls Ltd)

ICEweb's Instrument Signal Conditioners, Transmitters, Transducers, Isolators and Converters page is just full of information on these subjects.

Inergen Fire Suppression

  Infra-red Open Path (line of sight) Gas Detection - ICEweb has a Technical Information Page for Instrument and Fire & Gas Engineers dedicated to Open Path Gas Detectors, it covers Infra Red Line of Sight (Open Path) and Point Detectors Principle of Operation, Technology, Calibration and more!

Instrument Air Receivers - Warning on Air Receivers - WorkSafe Victoria has released new guidance focussing on the safety risks associated with air receivers - a type of pressure vessel used to store compressed air for large demands greater than a compressor's capacity. WorkSafe director Ross Pilkington says air receivers have the potential to seriously hurt people and damage property if they were not properly installed or maintained. There have been serious incidents involving air receivers exploding in Victorian workplaces - and it has only been good luck that no one was working near them at the time.  Employers with air receivers must ensure they are properly maintained to reduce the risk of explosion or fire. The handbook 'Working safely with air receivers' is aimed at improving awareness of the risks associated with air receivers, and explaining ways to eliminate and reduce those risks.

Instrument Tubing

Instrumentation Terminology - Glossary of Terms - from Instrumentation World  

Instrument and Control Technical Information - Some great information on individual topics about the basics of control engineering, self-operated regulators, control valves, communication as well as building and process automation - from Samson Controls.

IP Ratings and NEMA


ICEweb has a comprehensive Level Page just full of technical information

Lightning and Surge Protection Page- Lots of technical information  links on this fascinating subject

Line-of-Sight Oil Mist / Smoke Detectors


Manufacturing and Automation Safety -A full page of Technical information.

Fibre Optic Sensors for Measurement of Flow, Level, Pressure, Stain, Temperature and Vibration - from Davison Instruments

A Beginnerís Guide to Measurement - This 30 page Beginnerís Guide from the National Physical Laboratory explains the fundamental concepts and basic facts about measurement, and in particular accurate measurement. It includes brief accounts of the role of measurement in modern and historical societies and explains the SI system, its base units and their relation to other units. The various organisations involved in measurement are introduced and their roles in linking all measurements to the SI base units through traceability chains explained. It includes general guidance about practical issues that affect the making of measurements, gives the meanings of key measurement terms, and explains the significance of such fundamental concepts as measurement traceability and calibration.

Metric Units




See IP Ratings and NEMA

NPT Thread Tolerances - thanks to Engineers Edge.

Ohms Law - from the Electronics Club.

Ohm's Law, Online Calculator - from Ohm's Law Calculator

Oil Mist Detectors

Oil in Water Analysers

The need for an in-line oil-in-water monitor - kindly provided by Andy Jamieson

OPC Foundation (OPC Foundation)


PLCs (Personal PLC Tutor)

Power Meter- Get to know your Power Meter - What is Real, Apparent and Reactive Power - This useful article from discusses some of the traps to avoid.

Preliminary Engineering (INX Inc)

Pressure and Temperature Calibration Information Notes (INX Inc)

Pressure Conversions

Pressure Unit Conversion - Look up conversion factors or select a conversion table for a particular pressure unit

Pressure Measurement Information Notes (INX Inc)

Pressure Measurement and Instrumentation - This ICEweb page contains comprehensive Pressure Technical Information and covers theory, safety tips, pressure conversions, pressure measurement and instrumentation, pressure transmitters/sensors, differential pressure and lots more!

Pressure- Relationship with elevation (Cole Parmer)

Pressure Terms (Cole Parmer)

ICEweb's Pressure Relief Valves Page - This is a comprehensive page with links to a huge vault of Pressure Relief Valve Information.

PROFIBUS-PA (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Pump Curve- Ever needed to know how to read a curve? (Cole Parmer)

Pumps - Lots of Information from Cole Parmer

Guide to Low Resistance Measurement - Understanding and Measuring Low Resistance to Ensure Electrical System Performance . The purpose of this booklet is to help the engineer, technician or operator:
- Understand the rationale behind low resistance testing.
- Understand how to make a low resistance measurement.
- Understand how to select the proper instrument for the testing application.
- Understand how to interpret and use the results.
From Techrentals

Resistors - Beer and Vodka can help you Select a Terminating Resistor - Covers Resistor Colour Codes, How to buy resistors, How to make a resistance value even if you don't have the correct resistor in your toolbox and Resistor colour codes for 4 and 5 band resistors - from

Resistor Colour Codes - from Ohms Law Calculator

Resistor Colour Code Calculator - This calculator displays the value, the tolerance and performs a simple check to verify if the calculated resistance matches one of the EIA standard values - from

Rupture Disks- a full page of links

RS485 on a Scope Using an Oscilloscope on a RS485 Network - For reference purposes here are some scope captures of a typical RS485 line - from


Safety Relief Valves-a full page of links

Security - ICEweb's Control System Security page has many technical articles and white papers on this subject.

Self-Operated Regulators, Introduction (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Self-Regulating Valves (Provided by Samson AG)

Cutting costs using self-operated regulators
Mr Wolfgang Hesse, Technical Sales Department, SAMSON (1.7Mb, zipped .PDF)
At the beginning of the last century, the first self-operated regulators were used for simple control tasks
which marked the beginning of process automation. Nowadays, many of us are not aware of the advan-tages,
the design, the principle of operation as well as the limits of this type of technology. In this paper,
Samson's Mr Wolfgang Hesse outlines how cost effective self-operated regulators can be.

Sensors - The basics - from the Sensors Reference Centre

Sensors - How to Choose the Right Sensor for Your Measurement System - You can choose from many different sensors on the market today to measure all types of natural phenomena. This white paper categorizes and compares the most common sensors for measuring seven of these phenomena to help you choose the best option for your application - from National Instruments.

Serial Data Transmission - (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Severe Service Valves - This ICEweb Page includes some great technical information from our sponsors Mokveld along with some other technical specs etc.

Signals - A look at 4 - 20 Milliamp Signals - Arthur Holland, Holland Technical Skills - A good description of 4-20Ma technology - Thanks to Eurotherm.

Signal Isolators, Converters and Interfaces: The "Ins" and "Outs"- Parts 1 and 2 , This primer details how to select and use the correct signal isolator in the correct way to optimize your process. Learn about selecting isolators that share, split, boost, protect, step down, linearize and even digitize process signals- from Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc.

SI Units - from NIST

ICEweb's Surge Protection Page- Lots of technical information  links on this fascinating subject.

Standards - Current Australian Hazardous Standards

Switches- Some excellent technical links from the Switches Reference Centre

Tapping Point Blockage - Automatic Cleaning tool - see the advantages of this advanced technology on the applications page.

ICEweb's Temperature Instruments and Measurement Page- This comprehensive Technical Information page covers; Basics of Temperature Measurement, Temperature Conversion, Bi-Metallic Principals, Emissivity, Mercury in Steel, Temperature Standards, Selection of a Temperature Transmitter/Sensor, Temperature Sensor Types / Uses / Measurements / Applications, Resistance Thermometers, Radiation/IR Thermometers/Pyrometers (Non Contact Temperature Measurement), Thermocouples, Thermistors, Thermometers, Thermal Imagery, Thermowells,  Temperature Scales and Conversions, Temperature Regulators and Temperature Sensor Calibration Resources

Temperature Measurement Calibration Notes (INX Inc)

Temperature Measurement Information Notes (INX Inc)

Temperature Regulators (Samson Controls Pty Ltd) PDF Format

Temperature- Traps and Colour Confusion in Thermocouple wiring (Thanks to Arthur Holland, Holland Technical Skills, Oakville, Canada and Eurotherm) 

Terminology (IICA)

Tubing and Fitting Standards - ICEweb's very useful resource for anyone looking for Instrument Fittings and Tubing.

Controller Tuning - ICEweb's Process Control Systems Page has numerous technical papers and tutorials on this subject.

Two Wire Transmitter and the 4 - 20mA Current Loop - First appearing in the 1950ís with the advent of electrical and electronic controls, the 4-20mA signal standard reigns as one of the most popular mediums for signal transmission and electronic control in industrial environments nearly 60 years later - from and Acromag

Imperial Units - tables and conversions.

Imperial Units - With modern man now using the metric system there is sometimes a need to remember what the old units of measurement were, the common and not so common.

Uncertainty, Units - National Institute of Standards and Technology


Introduction to Valves - By definition, valves are mechanical devices specifically designed to direct, start, stop, mix, or regulate the flow, pressure, or temperature of a process fluid. Valves can be designed to handle either liquid or gas applications. By nature of their design, function, and application, valves come in a wide variety of styles, sizes, and pressure classes. The smallest industrial valves can weigh as little as 1 lb (0.45 kg) and fit comfortably in the human hand, while the largest can weigh up to 10 tons (9070 kg) and extend in height to over 24 ft (6.1 m). Industrial process valves can be used in pipeline sizes from 0.5 in [nominal diameter (DN) 15] to beyond 48 in (DN 1200), although over 90 percent of the valves used in process systems are installed in piping that is 4 in (DN 100) and smaller in size. Valves can be used in pressures from vacuum to over 13,000 psi (897 bar). An example of how process valves can vary in size is shown in Fig. 1.1. Todayís spectrum of available valves extends from simple water faucets to control valves equipped with microprocessors, which provide single-loop control of the process. The most common types in use today are gate, plug, ball, butterfly, check, pressure-relief, and globe valves. Valves can be manufactured from a number of materials, with most valves made from steel, iron, plastic, brass, bronze, or a number of special alloys - from

Very Early Smoke Detection

Volume Conversions

Wireless New Technologies