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to the Various Sections of this and other Instrument Fittings and Tubing Pages; Instrument
Compression Fittings | Achieving Optimal Results |Pressure
Ratings| Assembly | Metric
and Imperial Fittings | Thread Types | Gauging
External Taper Threads | Gauging Internal Threads | BSP (British Standard Pipe)
(ISO228) Parallel | Mixing
and any other Thread Standard | Making up NPT Connections |
Use of Thread Tape |
Thread Gauges – Use and Handling | Instrument
Fittings Technical Data | Codes
and Standards | Compression
Fittings | Excess
Flow Valves | Instrument
Manifolds,Monoflanges,Valves and Accessories| Tubing
Selection | Technical Information on Instrument Tubing
and Fittings | Prochem Pipeline Products
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fittings are supplied in either Metric or Imperial tube sizes. It is
very important that types are not mixed or used on the incorrect tubing.
are several common thread configurations, in instrumentation design
two types are commonally utilised.
(National Pipe Tapered) threads such as Pipe Threads General Purpose (inch) conforming to
threads use the “interference” principle and the use of thread tape or other
thread sealant is essential. The thread tape will stop leaks via the
gaps in the thread and avoid galling of the threads by giving lubrication.
In ICEWEB's opinion care should be taken on higher pressures to ensure the
tolerance is better than the requirements of ASME B1.20.1 as if the male and
female threads are to the outside of the tolerance then only 1.5 threads will be
engaged or alternately the fittings may “bottom out”. In both
cases there are potential for blowout. How many times have you seen
this scenario? Whilst the 1.5 threads in itself will contain most
pressures without blowout it is quite possible that the Instrument Fitter will
gall the threads because of insufficient thread entry.
recommendation is NPT threads are designed to meet the dimensional requirements
stated in ASME B1.20.1-1993 with the following modifications, this
will ensure that if both the fitting and the mating instrument get a 4 to 6
is important to specify the revised tolerance on the instrument as well, particularly
on high pressure connections on equipment which are designed for noxious or
thread gauging requirement in sections 8.1 and 8.2 modified to:
hand tight the male fitting must engage into the ring gauge + 1/4 to + 1 turn
more than the start of the first scratch mark on the chamfer zone.
hand tight the plug gauge must engage into the female fitting + 1/4 to + 1 turn
below the last thread scratch on the chamfer zone.
type of thread utilises a washer/gasket or O-ring to achieve a seal. It
is important that any fitting also is fitted with a pin lock arrangement so that
the fitting cannot vibrate loose.
is highly recommended that no mixing of thread types occur on a facility. If
this culture exists it is possible for example that a Parallel thread is
installed into a Tapered thread. Thus, potential for blowout is
the threads hand tight - minimum of 4 and a maximum of 6.
additional 0.5-1.5 turns can be expected with wrench tightness using a quality
tight engagement should be checked before applying any thread tape.
tape should always be utilised on NPT threads, however never on
the compression fittings themselves. Any tape should be high
quality and NOT obtained from the local hardware store. A good rule is to obtain
thread tape that meets the requirements of UL 340-M1979 (AGA) 3226, MIL-T-27730A
or AG208. There are thread tapes that are specifically designed for
316ss and other fittings.
are liquid type sealants available, these should be selected based on
their specification and any anti-galling features. These sealants are
particularly useful for hydraulic or clean services where small particles of
tape could contaminate valves, ports etc.
Initially ensure that the hand-tight joint assembly gives 4 to 6 full turns of engagement.
Unscrew the joint, cleaning any dirt on the threads and then apply tape to the male thread. Begin with the first thread in direction of the pitch ensuring the tape is wrapped with a slight overlap.
Tension the tape but do not stretch or thin it out.
Cut the tape and draw the free end around the threads tautly.
Rub the tape onto the thread ensuring engagement with it. In the case of stainless steel fittings, apply a second layer of tape.
Re-assemble hand-tight and make wrench tight with REASONABLE FORCE only to achieve another 0.5 to 1.5 turns. Please note excessive force may damage the fitting. Teflon provides lubrication which will aid deformation or collapse of fittings if excessive force is used. Teflon can also exacerbate loosening of slack joints.
When it is necessary to break and remake connections ensure that any old tape residues are removed from the threads.
Use hand tight pressure only when gauging fittings with precision thread gauges. Do not use gauges where any rust, swarf or dirt is present in the thread. Threads must be clean and bright. If the fitting cannot be cleaned, discard it.
Do not screw any thread gauges together. Thread gauges are precision instruments. Engagement will cause wear and possibly dry seizure in storage.
gauges are intended to be used as a master set with which regular comparative
checks of secondary gauges can be made against a series of fittings.
gauges are intended for field use. They must be regularly checked
against primary gauges for wear and damage.
of testing secondary gauges depends on the frequency of use. Testing
is required after impact damage and chipping. It is recommended that
Primary gauges and secondary gauges are checked every six months by profile
NPT Standards Applicable to Thread Gauges
master gauges and secondary working gauges should be manufactured and supplied
in accordance with ASME B1.20.1-1993 specifications.
gauges are product specific and give indication whether the make up is correct. It
is suggested that you contact your supplier to determine whether they are
available for the product.
Just click on the super ICEweb links below for more Technical Information on Instrument Tubing and Fittings.
Analytical, Instrumentation and Mechanical Heat Tracing and Tube Bundles - A Tubing Bundle consists of a small diameter tube or group of tubes packaged in an insulated, weatherproofed jacket. It may be steam or electric traced to provide freeze protection or temperature maintenance. Tubing Bundles are used in Instrument hook-up and impulse lines, Analyser sample transport, Insulated Tubing and Jacketed Tubing. This page provides many relevant free technical references to Analytical, Instrumentation and Mechanical Heat Tracing and Tube Bundles.
Codes and Standards - A useful list of Instrument Fitting and Tubing Codes and Standards.
Excess Flow Valves - These devices are a real "Safety Boost" in that they limit flow in the event of a rupture.
Instrument Fittings Technical Data - This is a page which has a vast amount of Technical Engineering Information on Instrument Fittings and Tubing.
Instrument Manifolds,Monoflanges,Valves and Accessories - Information on what is a great addition to an Instrument Engineers Instrument take-off design engineering arsenal. Saving potential "failure points" means enhanced safety!
Tubing Selection - Instrument Tubing has to treated with "Respect" in that there are many facets of any design of tubing systems. This page goes into great detail with many tips.
This superb 72 page document from the
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association covers most engineering aspects of small
bore tubing and fittings.
and Tube Fittings - This open source book Lessons in
Industrial Instrumentation by Tony R. Kuphaldt has a useful section on
instrument connections has a useful section on Instrument Tube Fittings –
go to page 573. This is a fantastic resource but be prepared for the 50Mbit
|Great technical information on other products from our sponsors PROCHEM PIPELINE PRODUCTS|
INSTRUMENTATION - Includes information on;
ATKOMATIC Solenoid Valves
BuTech Pressure Systems - System components are available in every imaginable alloy to handle pressures form vacuum to 150,000 PSI (10,000 bar) in tube and pipe sizes from 1/8" to 1" and temperatures from -423°F (-253°C) to over 1200°F (649°C). Suitable for extreme application of erosive or corrosive solids, liquids or gases.
Classic Filters - These filters are suitable for a variety of gas and liquid applications and are used in a wide range of industries around the world. The disposable microfibre filter elements are extremely efficient as well as being low cost. There are a number of benefits with this type of element and they offer high flow rates with very low pressure drops.
DOPAK® Sampling Systems - Due
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GYROLOK® Twin Ferrule Tube Fittings
HOKE® Instrumentation Valves
King Instrument Company - King Instrument Company offers a comprehensive line of variable area flow metres including acrylic, polysulfone, glass and metal tube metres. Optional alarms and 4-20 mA transmitter available on selected models. See more technical information on ICEweb's Flow page.
Prochem NPT Ball Valves - Full Bore 2-piece
threaded valves allowing straight-through flow. Virtually no head loss and a
superior performer with mildly abrasive as well as corrosive fluids. Ideal
for in-line control of process fluids.
Stainless Steel Braided Hoses – Teflon® Lined
Stainless Steel Tube
Thread Tape & Thread Paste
HOKE® Pipe Fittings
HYDRAULIC- Includes information on;
Tube-Mac Piping Technologies
Tube-Mac – PYPLOK System
Tube-Mac Non-welded Flange Connections
Seamless Steel Tubes
Stainless Steel Ball Valves – Hydraulic
Stainless Steel JIC Fittings
- JIC Fittings and Adaptors provide a straightforward,
positive, mechanical seal. They have been used for
many years for reliable sealing in commercial,
industrial and military applications. They are proven to supply dependable,
reusable connections under a wide range of operating conditions
including extremes of vibration, temperature and shock.
- JIC Fittings and Adaptors provide a straightforward, positive, mechanical seal. They have been used for many years for reliable sealing in commercial, industrial and military applications. They are proven to supply dependable, reusable connections under a wide range of operating conditions including extremes of vibration, temperature and shock.
VALVES AND ACTUATORS - Includes information on;
Prochem Actuated Valve Packages - Specialising in Poyam, ATC, BSM, Pacson and Habonim – Prochem can deliver actuated valves in any combination to suit your valve, actuator and control system specification.
AMPO Poyam Valves
BSM Valving Solutions
ATC Actuators - The heart of the ATC actuator design is the revolutionary torque conversion mechanism combined with the integrated actuator spring. The simple operating principle offers a combination of high efficiency and small displacement, thereby creating greater design flexibility and improved reliability. This design flexibility, combined with the innovative integration of all actuator parts, results in the most compact actuator available in the market. In virtually all applications, irrespective of hydraulic or pneumatic supply, the ATC actuator diameter is smaller than the Face-to-Face dimension of the valve.
Anderson Greenwood Primary Isolation Valves
Habonim Industrial Valves and Actuators
Quality Management System
Fully Traceable and Complying Threads
Leaders in Thread Manufacture
World Class Manufacturing
Safety, Integrity and Reliability
Standard Products – BSP Fittings
Standard Products – NPT Fittings
PIPING PRODUCTS- Includes information on;
Branch Fittings - Details on a range of Buttweld, Socketweld, Threaded and Flanged reinforced branch fittings from 8 (1⁄4") NB upwards.
BSP Fittings - Prochem manufactures a complete
range (from 6 (1⁄8") - 100 (4") NB) of BSP tapered, BSP
parallel and BSP fastening and sealing threads for a variety of
applications, in class 150 and 3000. All our BSP threaded fittings are
checked with calibrated gauges during manufacture. Each batch is further
confirmed as being in compliance with the international standard and before
they are released into the market, all products undergo a final visual and
dimensional inspection by thread profiling.
Buttweld Fittings - Concentric and eccentric reducers, equal and reducing tees, 45° and 90° elbows, buttweld caps and stub ends, are all part of the comprehensive range of buttweld fittings carried by Prochem.
Duplex Stainless Steels - Duplex Stainless Steels are unlike the 300 (Austenitic) and 400 (Ferritic) series of stainless steels in that they have a structure consisting of approximately equal amounts of both ferrite and austenite. Therefore, they are often referred to as ferritic-austenitic stainless steels. With a chromium content ranging from 18 to 28 percent, they have improved passivity compared to standard grades. The nickel content ranges from 4.5 to 8 percent which is insufficient to promote a complete austenitic crystal structure, hence the mixed ferrite-austenite structure. Most grades contain molybdenum in the range of 2.5 to 4 percent plus small amounts of nitrogen – enhancing both strength and pitting resistance.
Flanges - A flange is designed to connect sections of pipe, or to join a pipe to an assembly such as a pressure vessel, valve or pump. Flanges are joined by bolting, and sealing is completed with the use of gaskets, and fixed to the piping system by welding or threading.
Heat Exchanger, Condensor & Boiling Tubes - Useful technical datasheet.
Hygienic and Tube - Prochem is well established as a supplier to the food industry. A comprehensive range of BSM, Tri-clover and buttweld fittings and valves are available throughout Australia, complete with welded and annealed polished tubes to suit.
NPT Fittings - NPT fittings are designed for high-pressure (class 3000 - class 6000) applications, and have a distinctive profile for maximum strength. All NPT products are checked with calibrated gauges during the manufacturing process and each batch is further confirmed as being in compliance with the international thread standard. Before they are released into the market, each item is subject to a final visual and dimensional inspection by thread profiling. Materials used comply with ASTM A403 or A182.
Pipe Nipples - Pipe nipples are available in ASTM A403 WP316/316L or 304/304L materials, from 6 (1⁄8″) NB upwards, threaded BSP or NPT, bevelled or plain ended. Prochem has the ability to manufacture pipe nipples up to 6000 mm (6 m) in length in sizes 6 NB to 80 NB.
Saflok Self-Locking Quick Coupler Range - Prochem provides the safest quick couplers on the market from Saflok. Included the patented locking cam arm, the Saflok design has no peer among other quick couplings.
Socketweld Fittings - Prochem manufactures and supplies an extensive range of the highest quality Socketweld fittings, all thoroughly inspected to ensure complete dimensional compatibility with the requirements of the ASME B16.11 manufacturing standards.
Swage and Pipe Nipples - Prochem manufactures, stocks and supplies a range of plain, bevelled and threaded concentric and eccentric swage nipples, from 8 (1⁄4") NB through to 100 (4") NB, with other sizes available on request. All swage nipples are either manufactured from seamless pipe or bar material and have an available working pressure equivavlent to straight seamless pipe. These fittings are available in ASTM A403 WP316/316L or 304/304L materials with other materials available on request.
Stainless Steel Shim - Grade 316 shim, annealed and with a hardness rating of HV200, is available in coiled 305 mm (12″) wide rolls, in various thicknesses and sold by the linear metre.
Stainless Water Solutions Package - With increased height of buildings, pressures, and life time expectations, people are turning to Stainless Steel for their Water Solutions. These pipe and fittings bear the Water Mark logo ensuring compliance to the industry specifications. Coupled with roll grooving, Prochem has the complete package to offer your Water Solutions package. All designers, architects and builders should contact Prochem to see how we can save you money!!
Swing and Spring Check Valves
Pyplok - Now you can have the benefits of a welded joint, but without the hazards of hot work, using the Tube-Mac PYPLOK® DM and DP40 Series. It’s not only a permanent system, it goes on cold. This means all of the risks and requirements associated “with hot work” are avoided.
Assembly and Verification Process of PYPLOK Fittings
PYPLOK fittings installed in a BOP (Blowout preventer) installed in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth of 2.400 m
PYPLOK fittings - Assembly Using a Hose Crimper - Pyplok fittings can be also crimped with a hose crimper, allowing companies the use of the fittings without having to buy a portable unit. The time and cost savings compared to welding, cutting ring or flaring are huge.
PYPLOK fittings for Water Mist Piping - PYPLOK fittings are the perfect choice for high pressure water mist piping systems. They are very fast to install, more economical than classical systems and totally reliable.
Welded Duplex Tube - Welded Duplex
Tube to: ASTM SA789/A789 UNS S31803/S32205.
some great information here.
Swagelok link has considerable technical information. It is however
difficult to navigate to, when on the main page enter as a guest or
register, go to “fittings tube” and then click on “connects
tubing to tubing” and then click on any product and you will be into the
technical information area.
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