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Jump to the Various Sections of this and
other Instrument Fittings and Tubing Pages; Instrument Tubing Selection
Selection| Instrument Tubing Preparation | Instrument Tubing for Hazardous Gas Service | Instrument Tube Bending
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There is a huge selection of materials to
choose from when selecting instrument tubing. The
selection is dependent on the service, installation
and how long the tubing is required. It is
important that these are considered before making a choice.
One has to be careful when selecting polished tubing as the manufacturers
polishing can work harden it and increase the surface hardness to unacceptable
levels. Thus when specifying tubing it is best to select dull annealed
type, then one can be assured that no untoward hardening has occurred.
One has to be careful when selecting polished tubing as the manufacturers polishing can work harden it and increase the surface hardness to unacceptable levels. Thus when specifying tubing it is best to select dull annealed type, then one can be assured that no untoward hardening has occurred.
The tubing surface is
ESSENTIAL to sealing when using a compression fitting, hence good handling practices
should be used to reduce scratches and protect surface finish. For example dragging tubing across any surface
that could scratch its surface can cause real corrosion and sealing problems. On offshore facilities, scratches may lead to
corrosion of 316SS tubing from salt water pitting.
It is a good idea to
visually inspect instrument tubing to ensure it is free from scratches and other damage. Severe scratches or damage to tubing could affect
the safe installation of the compression fitting. It
is recommended that tubing in poor condition should be disposed of. Finished tubes should be scratch free, reasonably
straight and have smooth ends free of burrs.
When cutting tubing
do not use a hacksaw, the correct tool
is a tube cutter which has a sharp blade.
Using the correct
deburring tool (usually found on the cutter), deburr
both the inside and outside edges of tube ends.
It is recommended
that instrument tubing is cleaned with dry instrument air, however where the service
requires a high level of cleanliness a proprietary cleaning agent should be used.
On hazardous gas
service take care to ensure that the correct wall thickness has been chosen. Gas molecules are small and can migrate through
thinner wall tubing. Contact your tubing
supplier for details.
On applications where
bending is required, a tube bender must be used. Follow
the tube bender manufacturers instructions to assure good bends. Either compression or draw type hand benders
should be used for tubing up to 1/2 inches. Above this size hydraulic tools are recommended.
Tubing Bending & Installation - Wesley Tucker - Instruments around a
plant monitor and control systems ranging from pressure differentials to
contents of materials measured in percentages. Installing tubing to and from
various instrument locations involves an understanding of the process and the
application. Tubing installation is often dictated by the requirements of
process. Bending, positioning and bracing tubing means more than just measuring
a straight line and getting enough tube to fit. Tubing benders permit maximum
tolerances for pressurized lines while reducing waste from cracked, misshapen or
misaligned tubes of all sizes - from ehow.
Video - How to Bend 1/4 Inch Stainless Tubing - from BTC Instrumentation.
Video - Copper Tube Bending - A video of how to bend copper tube.
To ensure proper
insertion depth into compression fittings minimum straight lengths of tubing are needed. The following information may be used as a
reference for the bending radius and for the minimum straight length before the bend
for proper installation.
· If the tubing O.D. is 1/2 inches or less, provide
at least 25mm straight length.
· If the tubing O.D. is greater than 1/2 inches
provide at least 50mm straight length.
If the straight length is not possible, an
elbow should be used.
are supplied assembled. The fitting, pipe
thread and general appearance should be inspected visually before use. It is recommended that fittings are not
disassembled. Always ensure that the tubing
material is softer than the fitting.
If practical, it is recommended that instrument process impulse lines
are installed in the vertical plane. Horizontal
impulse lines are generally run with a slope of not less than one in twelve between the
process connection and the instrument. Slope
should be down from the tapping points for liquids and up for gases.
For reasons of accessibility offset and stagger tube unions
Tube fittings must not be used to support instruments, which should be
It is recommended that any Weld splatter on stainless tubing be
removed. In severe cases, the tubing must be
q It is a good idea to ensure all instrument impulse lines are as short
as possible. For lengths up to approximately
1m tubing is self-supporting, however for longer lengths it is recommended that the tubing
be supported at approximately 1m intervals.
q The number of joints in the impulse line should be kept to a minimum. Process and utility piping must not be used for
supporting instrumentation piping or tubing.
q Tubing should be adequately supported and braced. It is suggested that support fixing distances not
exceed the following:
1/4 inch OD
1/2 inch OD
3/4 inch OD
1 inch OD
q It is recommended that three or more tubes run in parallel are
supported in steel angle or channel, or on cable tray or ladder with appropriate
q To avoid the possibility of corrosion, it is recommended that stainless
steel tube and/or fittings (316, duplex or otherwise) is NOT be in direct contact or
located directly under Zinc coated or galvanised components.
q Electrically non-conductive tubing clamps are available. These isolate
tubing from its supports,
It is suggested that
impulse lines for instruments shall be arranged to avoid:-
· Movement through thermal expansion.
· Mechanical damage from impact.
When tube vibration
is a problem, due to the closeness of machinery, process pressure changes or other
excitation, it is recommended:
· Tubing is clamped to the monoflange, process take-off or process line
using a suitable clamp with the minimum span between the compression fitting and the
· A vibration loop (pigtail) is installed in the tube span between the
process line and any independent structure used to support the tube. The orientation of the loop should be chosen with
due regard to the probable relative motion between the connections.
· The vibration loop crossover has a minimum clearance of 2 x tube OD to
prevent fretting of the tube.
There are several
instrument tube welders on the market, they
are excellent for hazardous gas applications. These
units provide consistent high quality welds when operated correctly.
Ensure that extremely soft plastic tubing is used with an insert. Never use metal ferrules on plastic tubing.
Stainless Steel Tube - Covering Seamless Stainless Steel Tube in Duplex, Monel, PVC sheathed copper tube and exotic metals. This technical article includes important subjects such as Ferrule hardness, 2.5% Minimum Molybdenum, Pickled & Passivated vs. Bright Annealed Tubing along with weights and working pressures
Hoke Gyrolok® Tubing Data Charts - These charts are very useful and contain information on design, type of tubing, tubing preparation, calculating Yield, Burst, and Maximum Allowable Working Pressures, Maximum Allowable Stress Values for Material at Various Temperatures, Stainless Steel Calculation Factor Tables, Maximum Working/Burst Pressures and Tubing Tolerances.
Pipe and Tube - Lots of very useful information here including descriptions on seamless and welded, common pipe and tube terms, manufacturing methods, nominal working pressures, pipe dimensions and weights, tube weights and working pressures.
Useful Facts About Stainless Steel - This technical data sheet is full of useful facts and information about stainless steel.
Selection of Materials - This very useful table gives the composition of the various materials used such as 304SS and 316SS etc.
Steel Terms and Definitions - A very useful table full of terms and descriptions.
It is strongly
recommended that any personnel associated with the installation of tube fittings
and tubing attend vendor courses that are Internationally available.
Tubing and fittings may look easy, however they are complex, precision
items which require fully competent personnel to install them - we suggest that
individuals and companies take ICEweb advice and attend a course.. Our Sponsors Prochem
Tubing and Fittings experts and have excellent Training Courses.
are Instrument Tubing and Fittings experts and have excellent Training Courses.
This superb 72 page document from the
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association covers most engineering aspects of small
bore tubing and fittings.
Instrument Installations - The Tricky Process of Designing Impulse Lines for
ASME B31.1 Compliance - Allan G. Gilson P.E. - When it
comes to tubing, everyone knows that a grip-type tube fitting will meet or
exceed the rating of the tubing itself. This makes instrument tubing
installation easy—right? Simply ensure that the tubing is sized correctly, and
everything will work. Piece of cake. The recent generation of coal plants in the
United States (and around the world) has seen a major increase in the use of
supercritical technologies due to inherent efficiency advantages over
subcritical designs. However, no gain is without cost in some form. Greater
efficiency requires considerably higher pressures and temperatures, resulting in
significant new challenges for critical system instrument impulse line design
and installation. In a supercritical plant, the pressures and temperatures for
the main steam and feed water cycles routinely exceed that of conventionally
fired drum-type boilers and combined cycle units. These elevated pressures and
temperatures are particularly challenging for boiler manufacturers and
engineers. Compliance with ASME B31.1 Power Piping requires much thicker piping
and tubing walls, as well as stronger materials for valves and fittings - from
Video – Techniques for Effective Tubing – Note these training videos from Yellow Jacket are for Copper Tubing only and whilst concentrating on HVAC applications have some useful tips. They cover Cutting, Deburring, Flaring, Swaging, Bending etc. They are large downloads.
Document on Instrumentation Tubing and their Connections - Nirbhay Gupta
- Instrumentation tubing covers both Impulse tubes (sensing lines) as well as
pneumatic tubes. Connections include tapping points, root valves and tube
fittings. Usually one has to refer to a myriad of technical documents, codes and
standards to search for a specific aspect of tubing design or construction. This
technical note is an attempt to put all the information at one place. The
efforts have been put to expose the readers to all the aspects of tubing and
make them aware of all the developments in the world.
Instrument Tubing and Fittings Manual - This is an excellent resource from instrumentationtubing.blogspot.com.au. ICEweb always acknowledges Authors however it is a shame that the originator who has obviously put lots of time and effort into this blog is anonymous - anyway for whoever it was WELL DONE!
Section 1 - Instrumentation
Section 2 - Design
of Tubing and Tubing Systems
Section 3 - Technical
Requirements of 304 SS tubes
Section 4 - Pneumatic
Section 5 - ASTM Tubing Specifications Outside Diameter
It is important to understand that both of the above can affect the ferrule(s) ability to seal on the tubing. It is recommended to order tubing manufactured to the plus (+) side of the outside diameter tolerance. Wall thickness variations can affect pressure ratings and flow characteristics.
Section 6 - Embedded
Section 7 - Methods
of Connections of Instrumentation Tubes
|Section 8 - Guidelines
for Take-Off Connections for Sensing Lines
Covers the Location of Pressure Taps, Considerations for Pressure Tap Design and Recommendations for Pressure Tap Design.
| Section 9 - Guidelines
for Root Valves
Isolating root valves are provided at take-off connections to isolate the entire measurement system from the main pipe line/vessel when necessary.
|Section 10 - Installation
of Instrumentation Tubing
Best practices for impulse tubing installation - Covers Tubing Handling, Practical Guidelines for Tube Laying and Bending, Tube Bending Check list, Characteristics of a Well-Made Tubing Circuit, Common Causes of Imperfect Bends, Routing of Bends, Guidelines for Copper Tube Installation, Guidelines for Copper tube bending and Copper tube Joints.
|Section 11 - Impulse
Tube/Sensing Line Support
This section suggests principals that should be followed while designing the instrument sensing line supports.
|Section 12 - Impulse
Tube Installation Through EPs
In cases where tubing/piping are penetrating shielding wall, care should be taken to avoid personnel exposure to radiation streaming from radioactive sources to surrounding areas through instrument sensing lines penetrations in the shielding wall.
Section 13 - Tube
Section 14 - Threads
Used For Tube Fittings
Section 15 - Welding
Section 16 - Instrument
Tubing References and Suggested Reading A list of excellent references and standards.
A list of excellent references and standards.
Just click on the super ICEweb links below for more Technical Information on Instrument Tubing and Fittings.
Analytical, Instrumentation and Mechanical Heat Tracing and Tube Bundles - A Tubing Bundle consists of a small diameter tube or group of tubes packaged in an insulated, weatherproofed jacket. It may be steam or electric traced to provide freeze protection or temperature maintenance. Tubing Bundles are used in Instrument hook-up and impulse lines, Analyser sample transport, Insulated Tubing and Jacketed Tubing. This page provides many relevant free technical references to Analytical, Instrumentation and Mechanical Heat Tracing and Tube Bundles.
Codes and Standards - A useful list of Instrument Fitting and Tubing Codes and Standards.
Compression Fittings - This is "Essential" reading for any Instrument Engineer or Technician.
Excess Flow Valves - These devices are a real "Safety Boost" in that they limit flow in the event of a rupture.
Instrument Fittings Technical Data - This is a page which has a vast amount of Technical Engineering Information on Instrument Fittings and Tubing.
Instrument Manifolds,Monoflanges,Valves and Accessories - Information on what is a great addition to an Instrument Engineers Instrument take-off design engineering arsenal. Saving potential "failure points" means enhanced safety!
|Great technical information on other products from our sponsors PROCHEM PIPELINE PRODUCTS|
INSTRUMENTATION - Includes information on;
ATKOMATIC Solenoid Valves
BuTech Pressure Systems - System components are available in every imaginable alloy to handle pressures form vacuum to 150,000 PSI (10,000 bar) in tube and pipe sizes from 1/8" to 1" and temperatures from -423°F (-253°C) to over 1200°F (649°C). Suitable for extreme application of erosive or corrosive solids, liquids or gases.
Classic Filters - These filters are suitable for a variety of gas and liquid applications and are used in a wide range of industries around the world. The disposable microfibre filter elements are extremely efficient as well as being low cost. There are a number of benefits with this type of element and they offer high flow rates with very low pressure drops.
DOPAK® Sampling Systems - Due
to the growing complexity of the industrial processes in general and more
specific for processes in the (petro)chemical and pharmaceutical industries,
the need for tests and analyses increases continuously. The need for
representative samples plays a critical role in ensuring product
verification. Yet sampling directly from the process often includes the risk
of exposure to the operator, as well as contamination and pollution to the
environment. The Manual Sample Systems method reduces such risks with its
patented design and simple method of operation.
GYROLOK® Twin Ferrule Tube Fittings
HOKE® Instrumentation Valves
King Instrument Company - King Instrument Company offers a comprehensive line of variable area flow metres including acrylic, polysulfone, glass and metal tube metres. Optional alarms and 4-20 mA transmitter available on selected models. See more technical information on ICEweb's Flow page.
Prochem NPT Ball Valves - Full Bore 2-piece
threaded valves allowing straight-through flow. Virtually no head loss and a
superior performer with mildly abrasive as well as corrosive fluids. Ideal
for in-line control of process fluids.
Stainless Steel Braided Hoses – Teflon® Lined
Stainless Steel Tube
Thread Tape & Thread Paste
HOKE® Pipe Fittings
HYDRAULIC- Includes information on;
Tube-Mac Piping Technologies
Tube-Mac – PYPLOK System
Tube-Mac Non-welded Flange Connections
Seamless Steel Tubes
Stainless Steel Ball Valves – Hydraulic
Stainless Steel JIC Fittings
- JIC Fittings and Adaptors provide a straightforward,
positive, mechanical seal. They have been used for
many years for reliable sealing in commercial,
industrial and military applications. They are proven to supply dependable,
reusable connections under a wide range of operating conditions
including extremes of vibration, temperature and shock.
- JIC Fittings and Adaptors provide a straightforward, positive, mechanical seal. They have been used for many years for reliable sealing in commercial, industrial and military applications. They are proven to supply dependable, reusable connections under a wide range of operating conditions including extremes of vibration, temperature and shock.
VALVES AND ACTUATORS - Includes information on;
Prochem Actuated Valve Packages - Specialising in Poyam, ATC, BSM, Pacson and Habonim – Prochem can deliver actuated valves in any combination to suit your valve, actuator and control system specification.
AMPO Poyam Valves
BSM Valving Solutions
-Emergency Fast Track Valve Producers and Delivery Specialists, providing Ultra fast deliveries. Hard to obtain valves need specialist engineering. These valves are manufactured in a wide range of exotic materials to tight specifications..
ATC Actuators - The heart of the ATC actuator design is the revolutionary torque conversion mechanism combined with the integrated actuator spring. The simple operating principle offers a combination of high efficiency and small displacement, thereby creating greater design flexibility and improved reliability. This design flexibility, combined with the innovative integration of all actuator parts, results in the most compact actuator available in the market. In virtually all applications, irrespective of hydraulic or pneumatic supply, the ATC actuator diameter is smaller than the Face-to-Face dimension of the valve.
Anderson Greenwood Primary Isolation Valves
Habonim Industrial Valves and Actuators
Quality Management System
Fully Traceable and Complying Threads
Leaders in Thread Manufacture
World Class Manufacturing
Safety, Integrity and Reliability
Standard Products – BSP Fittings
Standard Products – NPT Fittings
PIPING PRODUCTS- Includes information on;
Branch Fittings - Details on a range of Buttweld, Socketweld, Threaded and Flanged reinforced branch fittings from 8 (1⁄4") NB upwards.
BSP Fittings - Prochem manufactures a complete
range (from 6 (1⁄8") - 100 (4") NB) of BSP tapered, BSP
parallel and BSP fastening and sealing threads for a variety of
applications, in class 150 and 3000. All our BSP threaded fittings are
checked with calibrated gauges during manufacture. Each batch is further
confirmed as being in compliance with the international standard and before
they are released into the market, all products undergo a final visual and
dimensional inspection by thread profiling.
Buttweld Fittings - Concentric and eccentric reducers, equal and reducing tees, 45° and 90° elbows, buttweld caps and stub ends, are all part of the comprehensive range of buttweld fittings carried by Prochem.
Duplex Stainless Steels - Duplex Stainless Steels are unlike the 300 (Austenitic) and 400 (Ferritic) series of stainless steels in that they have a structure consisting of approximately equal amounts of both ferrite and austenite. Therefore, they are often referred to as ferritic-austenitic stainless steels. With a chromium content ranging from 18 to 28 percent, they have improved passivity compared to standard grades. The nickel content ranges from 4.5 to 8 percent which is insufficient to promote a complete austenitic crystal structure, hence the mixed ferrite-austenite structure. Most grades contain molybdenum in the range of 2.5 to 4 percent plus small amounts of nitrogen – enhancing both strength and pitting resistance.
Flanges - A flange is designed to connect sections of pipe, or to join a pipe to an assembly such as a pressure vessel, valve or pump. Flanges are joined by bolting, and sealing is completed with the use of gaskets, and fixed to the piping system by welding or threading.
Heat Exchanger, Condensor & Boiling Tubes - Useful technical datasheet.
Hygienic and Tube - Prochem is well established as a supplier to the food industry. A comprehensive range of BSM, Tri-clover and buttweld fittings and valves are available throughout Australia, complete with welded and annealed polished tubes to suit.
NPT Fittings - NPT fittings are designed for high-pressure (class 3000 - class 6000) applications, and have a distinctive profile for maximum strength. All NPT products are checked with calibrated gauges during the manufacturing process and each batch is further confirmed as being in compliance with the international thread standard. Before they are released into the market, each item is subject to a final visual and dimensional inspection by thread profiling. Materials used comply with ASTM A403 or A182.
Pipe Nipples - Pipe nipples are available in ASTM A403 WP316/316L or 304/304L materials, from 6 (1⁄8″) NB upwards, threaded BSP or NPT, bevelled or plain ended. Prochem has the ability to manufacture pipe nipples up to 6000 mm (6 m) in length in sizes 6 NB to 80 NB.
Saflok Self-Locking Quick Coupler Range - Prochem provides the safest quick couplers on the market from Saflok. Included the patented locking cam arm, the Saflok design has no peer among other quick couplings.
Socketweld Fittings - Prochem manufactures and supplies an extensive range of the highest quality Socketweld fittings, all thoroughly inspected to ensure complete dimensional compatibility with the requirements of the ASME B16.11 manufacturing standards.
Swage and Pipe Nipples - Prochem manufactures, stocks and supplies a range of plain, bevelled and threaded concentric and eccentric swage nipples, from 8 (1⁄4") NB through to 100 (4") NB, with other sizes available on request. All swage nipples are either manufactured from seamless pipe or bar material and have an available working pressure equivavlent to straight seamless pipe. These fittings are available in ASTM A403 WP316/316L or 304/304L materials with other materials available on request.
Stainless Steel Shim - Grade 316 shim, annealed and with a hardness rating of HV200, is available in coiled 305 mm (12″) wide rolls, in various thicknesses and sold by the linear metre.
Stainless Water Solutions Package - With increased height of buildings, pressures, and life time expectations, people are turning to Stainless Steel for their Water Solutions. These pipe and fittings bear the Water Mark logo ensuring compliance to the industry specifications. Coupled with roll grooving, Prochem has the complete package to offer your Water Solutions package. All designers, architects and builders should contact Prochem to see how we can save you money!!
Swing and Spring Check Valves
Pyplok - Now you can have the benefits of a welded joint, but without the hazards of hot work, using the Tube-Mac PYPLOK® DM and DP40 Series. It’s not only a permanent system, it goes on cold. This means all of the risks and requirements associated “with hot work” are avoided.
Assembly and Verification Process of PYPLOK fittings
PYPLOK fittings installed in a BOP (Blowout preventer) installed in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth of 2.400 m
PYPLOK fittings - Assembly Using a Hose Crimper - Pyplok fittings can be also crimped with a hose crimper, allowing companies the use of the fittings without having to buy a portable unit. The time and cost savings compared to welding, cutting ring or flaring are huge.
PYPLOK fittings for Water Mist Piping - PYPLOK fittings are the perfect choice for high pressure water mist piping systems. They are very fast to install, more economical than classical systems and totally reliable.
Welded Duplex Tube - Welded Duplex
Tube to: ASTM SA789/A789 UNS S31803/S32205.
Pick the Proper Hose - Patrick Werrlein, Swagelok Company - Making a correct choice requires an understanding of hose components - The right hose keeps your process performing safely and cost effectively. The wrong hose could undermine your operations, put personnel at risk and compromise your bottom-line, sometimes without you being aware of it - from Chemical Processing.
following technical link is available via Swagelok
An Installer’s Pocket Guide for Swagelok® Tube Fittings – This Guide is a must for anyone associated with the Installation of Swagelok fittings. It is a large download so be prepared to wait a while.